The humanitarian environment involves international relief organizations, host governments, local or regional relief organizations and private companies, each of which may have different areas of expertise. Usually, there is no independent organization has enough resources to deal with a major disaster (Bui et al., 2000).Disaster relief environment itself is chaotic, the number of disaster relief operations is large, the lack of resources will lead to disaster coordination difficulties (Fenton, 2003). Relief distribution decision is based on the coordination of the relief chain.
Lack of coordination has been proven to increase inventory costs, shorten delivery time, and damage customer service (Simatupang et al. 2002). The coordination of the rescue chain is the key to improving the performance of the rescue chain (Balcik, Beamon, Krejci, Muramatsu & Ramirez, 2010).Findings and analysis Business supply chain management has extensively solved the key issues of coordination within the supply chain stakeholders and across material and information flows (Lee, 2000). In the multi-sectoral joint rescue process, areas that should be highlighted are joint procurement of coordinated transport and strategic pre-disaster coordination such as joint warehouses.
The pre-disaster chain includes procurement and inventory preset, and post disaster operations are mainly focused on procurement and transportation (Balcik, Beamon, Krejci, Muramatsu & Ramirez, 2010). Logistics accounted for 80% of the disaster relief business (Van Wassenhove, 2006). Transportation is an important part of the disaster relief operation. Post disaster transportation, especially in the “last mile”, is particularly challenging for rescue agencies. The challenge comes from damaged infrastructure, limited transport resources and the need for a large number of transport (Balcik et al.
, 2008).Rescue organizations can purchase goods in the local or other parts of the world. However, each scheme has advantages and disadvantages in terms of logistics costs, delivery time and availability. The challenges of global procurement in the post disaster environment are mainly due to the time consumption of the processing process and the consumption of mass transport. For example, bidding and time consumption of customs. The challenge of local procurement in post disaster environment is mainly that strong post disaster demand and local supply competition may expand the price of local market, thereby increasing the unit cost of local products (Balcik, Beamon, Krejci, Muramatsu & Ramirez, 2010).
It is very important in the rescue process to track the relief supplies and prioritize the flow of goods and to promote the concentration of scarce logistics assets. Therefore, a pull system can control the flow of goods rather than pushing all the donated items to the affected area, thereby preventing redundancy and congestion due to unnecessary supplies. In 2005, a cluster approach was proposed that defined common standards and guidelines across sectors and strengthened partnerships. However, the clustering approach has been widely criticized because of the failure of local non-governmental organizations to ensure effective coordination in their implementation. Such as negligence on language conversion issues (Balcik, Beamon, Krejci, Muramatsu & Ramirez, 2010).ConclusionIt is evident that coordination of the rescue operations is considered as crucial. This article explores the coordination of the disaster relief chain and logistics business. Improve disaster relief coordination and achieve global integration of disaster relief chain.
There is a need to develop new and innovative ways to support relief missions, equitably allocate risks and benefit all participants (Balcik, Beamon, Krejci, Muramatsu & Ramirez, 2010).