The Renewable energy resoruces are now the talk of the town because of the energy crises around the world.the reserves for the natural resources used to produce energy are depleting and the world is shifting towards alternative options.
among them the idea of biofeul is much discussed .A typical anaerobic digester plant can produce 900 cubic meter of Biogas which is sufficient to produce 1,800kwh renewable electricity .Moreover this biogas generation can also solves the issue of gas shortage for heating purposes.The use of waste for the generation is a pollution cut down strategy which will help to create safe environment and reduces the green house effects.Biofeul:-These are the feuls generated mainly from organic materials.from animal dung to agricultural waste ,from wood to charcoal or from municipal waste to agro-industry waste.
these feuls helps to transform organic waste to some useful energy resources thus helps in reducing pollution .biofeuls could be liquid or gas .Biofeuls have two generations.the first generation includes the feuls that are derived from sources like starch ,sugar and vegetable oils.eg Biodeisel,biogas,bioalcohols.Second generation includes the feuls that are derived from biomass e.g Ethanol and Methanol.Here we are working on “Biogas” inculuded in first generation of biofeuls.
BIOGAS:-It is the mixtures of gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in anaerobic conditions. .It can be produced from many sources like municipal waste ,manure ,agricultural waste or the from the source we are working onis which food waste .It is a renewable energy source and in many cases exerts small carbonfootprints.
It can be produced in anaerobic conditions by anerobic organisms by fermentation of waste inside the anaerobic digester .COMPOSITION OF BIOGAS:The major portion of biogas is consist of methane(70-75%) and other gases are also present which includes carbondioxide 20-25% and then traces of nitrogen,hydrogen and hydrogen sulpide . these percentages could vary depending upon the compositions of food waste .BIOFERTILIZER:-Biofertilizer are the fertlizer which increase crop productivity because it contains living cells of microorganisms.The remaing sludge in the anaerobic digester after the production of biogas can be used as biofertilizer/organic fertilizer after aerobic composting.It can increase crop yield by 25% as compared to manure.it is the waste so recycling it for a good cause is beneficial.ADVANTAGES OF BIOGAS :As we are working on biogas production some advantages of biogas are as follows:1.
It helps to reduce pollution by using waste .2. It is a renewable resource.3.It helps to decrease greenhouse effect .4.
it can be used for cooking purpose.5.Electricty could be generated from biogas.
6.can be used as a car feul by compressing the biogas and converting it into CNG.7.High quality fertilizer from sludge of Anaerobic digester.ADVANTAGES OF BIOFERTILIZER:1.fertlity of soil increase.2.
cost effective.3.No harmful chemicals present which damage the soil.4.biologicaly activate the soil.5.Increase crop productivity by 20-30%.
PROBLEM STATEMENT : In Pakistan around 40pc of cooked food is wasted along with certain amout of agricultural waste which increases the land pollution and has adverse effect on the environment .moreover the energy crises is increasing day by day to resolve these issues a renewable energy source is required .Biogas from food waste is an effective approach this will benefit the society and will help to clean the environment.OBJECTIVE:The objective of this project is:-Modification of bioreactor using agitator-Utilization of Food waste for diminishing pollution effects.RAW MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS:RAWMATERIALS:Organic materials have the potential to produce biogas .
Many types of organic wastes are used as a substrate in bioreactors which is utilized by the bacteria to generate biogas.However waste which contains lignin (wood or straw) can not produce biogas as these sources are not utilized by bacteria for fermentation.The substrates includes:AGRICULTURAL WASTE:ANIMAL MANURE:It is the most used substrate all over the world for the production of biogas. it is rich in nutrients that are needed by the bacteria to produce biogas.C/N ratio is a important parameter to consider while producing biogas.
Livestock manure is rich in nitrogen content such as chicken manure(1.03%),Goat Manure (1.01%),dairy manure(0.35%) and swine manure(0.
24%).ENERGY CROPS: These crops are highly available in agricultural countries like Pakistan.These crops include (sugarbeet,corncobs,winter wheat ,Millet).CROPS RESIDUES: The crop residues used as substrate in the reactor are Maize stalk,Rice straw,cotton stalks and water hyacinth.COMMUNITY WASTE:SEWAGE SLUDGE: when thermophilic condition is used inside a reactor the digestion of sewage sludge from waste streams achieved highest biogas yield 451 ± 12 mLBiogas/gSV.FOOD RESIDUALS: Around 40% Food is wasted during crop,production ,transportation and final consumer .
Food waste contains organic matter which release methane and increases greenhouse effect so usage of food waste as substrate in reactors for biogas production is an effective approach bacteria consumes the organic matter in anaerobic condition and produced biogas.INDUSTRIAL WASTE :SUGAR INDUSTRY WASTE: Press mud the waste from sugar industry is used as an substrate to produce biogas production.SLAUGHTER HOUSE WASTE: The salughter house waste includes soft offal and paunch with mix waste streams are used as substrate to produce biogas .The metane potential ranges from 49.
5 to 650.9 mLCH4 gVS?1. PRODUCTS:-BIOGAS-High quality fertilizer-Potential source of energy like heat and electricity.