The Scientific RevolutionTheme- cause and cureFactors that influenced smallpox vaccination.Government1802 Parliament gave Jenner ?10, 0001806 Parliament gave Jenner ?20, 0001840 Vaccination was made free for all infants1853 Vaccination was made compulsorySome people resented government interfering- attacks on personal libertyChanceJenner heard from a diary maid that people who had already had cow pox did not contract small pox. Jenner tried the first experiment on James Phipps. It was chance that it worked.Individual GeniusJenner was determined to try out his ideas even though the Royal Society refused to believe them.
Jenner followed the scientific method- observe>theory>experiment found the vaccine.CommunicationBetter communication allowed news of Turkish treatment of small pox, using inoculation, reach England. Vaccination became very popular in other countries quickly. The US president Thomas Jefferson praised Jenner. A group of Native Americans travelled to Britain to thanks Jenner. Napoleon released a prisoner on Jenner??™s request.ScienceJenner was a trained doctor who had been treating small pox sufferers for a long time.Koch and PasteurFactor- GovernmentThe French and German governments were caught up in international rivalry.
They actively encouraged Pasteur and Koch to make new discoveries. Both were given money and institutes to carry out their work.Industry, Science and TechnologyThe much improved microscope allowed bacteria to be studied.- Koch used industrial chemical dyes to stain bacteria- Koch also used contemporary cameras to photograph his experiments Individual BrillianceBoth men were intelligent, persistent, and determinedBoth spoke in public at the risk of abuse from doubtersChance EventsChamberlain??™s ???mistake??™ when Pasteur was researching a vaccine for a chicken cholera.The surprise arrival of Joseph Meister allowed Pasteur to test his rabies vaccine on humans.War The Franco-Prussian war (1870-71) ended for the French.
Tensions between the two countries followed. This meant that governments actively helped their scientists. However, it prevented close co-operation which may have led to more discoveries quicker. Koch and Pasteur were in fact rivals because a new discovery brought prestige to their country.
Communication The result of experiments and research were spread quickly via telegraph, newspapers and journals. Railways enabled scientists to meet regularly.Research TechniquesBoth Pasteur and Koch devised experiments to prove theories. Both had research teams.The search for the magic bulletIndividual brilliancea) Paul Ehrlich was determined and skilful. He is credited with discovering the first magic bullet salvarson 606.
b) Gerhard Domagk discovered that a red dye called prontosil- led to the development of sulphonamideScience/technology a) improved knowledge of physics and skilled engineering provided Ehrlich with technical aids (e.g. the microscope)b) Ditto Gerhard Domagkc) Paul Ehrlich referred to anti-bodies as magic bullets because like a bullet from a gun they sought out their specific target. Anti-bodies however did not always kill off invasive bacteria. Ehrlich began to think that there must be a chemical dye that would kill bacteria without harming the rest of the body. A synthetic magic bullet.d) Gerhard Domagk discovered a red dye called prontosil stopped the germ that caused blood poisoning.
Further research by other scientists found the compound in the dye which acted on germs was Sulphonamide. Other sulphonamide drugs were then developed. Industrya) progress in the chemical industry provided Ehrlich with the idea that chemicals e.g.
synthetic dyes might be able to kill germs inside the bodyCommunicationa) Ehrlich had worked firstly with Koch and then Emil Behring. When working with Behring on diphtheria he became fascinated with anti-bodies. He referred to anti-bodies as magic bullets.b) Gerhard Domagk was inspired by Ehrlich??™s work and he began to look for dyes which would destroy microbes.
Research Technique a) Teamwork and careful observation were crucial. Hata, Ehrlich??™s assistant had the patience to recheck previous work.b) A team of French scientists took the prontosil, which had been discovered by Domagk and discovered the compound in the dye was sulphonamide. Sulphonamide drugs then developed.Chancea) Hata discovered the compound Salvarson 606, a cure for syphilis after rechecking the samples. It was bad luck it was not found by the previous research assistant.b) Domagk??™s daughter pricked her finger with and infected needle and blood poisoning set in.
Domagk with nothing to loose gave her a huge dose of prontosil. It worked.c) PenicillinIndividual genius A Fleming myth has developed giving him the glory. Fleming may have discovered the mould in penicillin, however, it was not until further research by Howard Florey and Ernst Chain was carried out that the development and mass production of penicillin occurred.
Science/technology Penicillin was the world??™s first antibiotic that is the first drug derived from living organisms such as fungi, which would kill or prevent bacteria from growing. Penicillin was effective against a variety of germs. Led to the development of other antibiotics.Technological aids such as microscopes were used by both Fleming and Florey and Chain. Only large scale chemical companies had the capacity to mass produce penicillin. Chain devised a process to make penicillin by a combination of freeze drying technology and traditional equipment such as milk bottles milk churns.
Some illnesses are now developing immunity to antibiotics. In addition illnesses such as aids and cancer have not been conquered.IndustryMass production of penicillin was undertaken by four major drug companies who pooled their expertise.
Governments The British government funded Florey??™s research in 1939. The US government gave drug companies $80m in 1942 to start mass production of penicillin.ChanceThe mould blowing in through an open window and settling on Flemings dish very fortunate.CommunicationA close relationship between US and Britain ended with the American government providing funding for the chemical companies to mass produce penicillin.Research- techniques and teamsFlorey and Chain were skilled scientists who were supported by a skilled and committed team of researchers who followed scientific methods. In 1940 pure penicillin was produced.
War As soon as the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbour, America entered the war, and as a consequence gave chemical companies huge amounts of money to try and mass produce penicillin.