The word ??? means judge or govern.1 It isused as an act of ruler: the people of Israel might do it (Num 18:22-28) as awhole, and as an individual (Judges 16:31, Samson has led Israelites for twentyyears; 1 Sam 7:16), by a king (Judge 8:20). In addition, “God alone canexercise the true ultimate rulership for, he is the one judging all the earth(Gen 18:25).

However, Moses was acting as a ruler and deciding cased brought tohim on behalf of God, it was by divine authority candidly (Exod 18:13, 15). Itis also used to decide cases of controversy as judge in civil, domestic, andreligious cases. “In such cases it was the judge’s duty specifically to judgewith ??? and ???? (Ps 72:2-4) and in thecase of charges “they shall justly the righteous and condemn the wicked” (Deut25:1).”2The meaning of ???? includes justice,ordinance, custom, manner, it is not only restricted to judicial processes. TheHebrew bible use ???? in different contexts to designate notnecessary justice. These are some usages of ???? in the Hebrew Bible: 1. ???? is used to defineJudicial functions of the government.

2. ???? is used to indicate Godas the source of justice who is in supreme authority. It is not constitutionsor natural rights of man but is God authority for ???? is of God (Deut 1:17).3. ???? should be an attribute of all the civilianin general as it is the character of God whom they worship (Prov 21:15; Mic 6:8).4. In relation to ordinances, both the ordinances in Pentateuch ???? (Lev 5:10; 9:16) andeach ordinance in Mosaic law are called ???? (Deut 33:10, 21).

5. ???? is used torefer to custom or plan ( 2 Kgs 17:33; Exod 26: 30). 6.

???? is used in relation toone’s right or share under law (Deut 18:3; Jer 32:7).31 TWOT, 947.2 TWOT,947-948.3 TWOT, 948-949.


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