The last principal is justice which is
deals with the concept of fairness that is the distribution of burdens, risks,
chances and benefits. Several elements need to be considered by the researcher
when doing their research. All the participants need to be treated with equal
respect and concern where the benefits of the research will be shared, where
feasible, with all of those affected by its results. Other than that, the
participants also will not be excluded from research for reasons unrelated to
the research. Researchers will be cognizant of, and works to mitigate,
imbalances in power between themselves and participants, among individual participants,
or between participants and the groups to which they belong.

The purpose of the research is to
discover new information that would be helpful for the society in future. It
should never cause harm or injured to anyone or find out information at the expense
of other people. There is dilemma arises from the researcher in this case
because to avoid the risks, the researcher needs to know what is harmful. The
evidence obtained from the study will show whether it is beneficence or not. In
order to identify what can benefit the patients, it may be necessary to exposed
them to risks although the researchers are obligated to do their best to
minimize those possible risks and to maximize the benefits for participants.

Beneficence is the act that is done for
the benefit of others or a duty to ensure the welfare of the persons concerned.
This principal states that the research should do no harm and maximize benefits
for participants and minimize risks for participants. Participant must be safe
and feel protected by the researcher whenever they sign he consent and agree to
participate. Full explanations and information must be detailed to
participants.  To used easy words and
simple language for details so that they will fully understand and to avoid
miss understand of the concepts.

The second requirements in the principle
of autonomy is people with diminished autonomy should be protected. This is to
ensure that the persons concerned are not involved in research which could be
harmful for them with regard to a research project. This is because some people
in society may not have the capacity to make fully informed decisions.

The individuals should be treated as
autonomous which means that the individual capable of making their own decision
about important personal matters. The individual should only be involved in
research if they have voluntarily give their consent and been fully informed
about the nature, purpose and consequences of the research. Therefore the
individuals’ right need to be respected and they can make their own decision
whether to participate in the research or they will refuse to be the participant.

There are three fundamental principles
of research ethics that can be used by the researchers in their work which are
respect for persons or autonomy, beneficence and justice.


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