The last principal is justice which isdeals with the concept of fairness that is the distribution of burdens, risks,chances and benefits. Several elements need to be considered by the researcherwhen doing their research.

All the participants need to be treated with equalrespect and concern where the benefits of the research will be shared, wherefeasible, with all of those affected by its results. Other than that, theparticipants also will not be excluded from research for reasons unrelated tothe research. Researchers will be cognizant of, and works to mitigate,imbalances in power between themselves and participants, among individual participants,or between participants and the groups to which they belong.The purpose of the research is todiscover new information that would be helpful for the society in future.

Itshould never cause harm or injured to anyone or find out information at the expenseof other people. There is dilemma arises from the researcher in this casebecause to avoid the risks, the researcher needs to know what is harmful. Theevidence obtained from the study will show whether it is beneficence or not. Inorder to identify what can benefit the patients, it may be necessary to exposedthem to risks although the researchers are obligated to do their best tominimize those possible risks and to maximize the benefits for participants. Beneficence is the act that is done forthe benefit of others or a duty to ensure the welfare of the persons concerned.This principal states that the research should do no harm and maximize benefitsfor participants and minimize risks for participants.

Participant must be safeand feel protected by the researcher whenever they sign he consent and agree toparticipate. Full explanations and information must be detailed toparticipants.  To used easy words andsimple language for details so that they will fully understand and to avoidmiss understand of the concepts.The second requirements in the principleof autonomy is people with diminished autonomy should be protected. This is toensure that the persons concerned are not involved in research which could beharmful for them with regard to a research project.

This is because some peoplein society may not have the capacity to make fully informed decisions. The individuals should be treated asautonomous which means that the individual capable of making their own decisionabout important personal matters. The individual should only be involved inresearch if they have voluntarily give their consent and been fully informedabout the nature, purpose and consequences of the research. Therefore theindividuals’ right need to be respected and they can make their own decisionwhether to participate in the research or they will refuse to be the participant.There are three fundamental principlesof research ethics that can be used by the researchers in their work which arerespect for persons or autonomy, beneficence and justice.


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