The property of the bone to regenerate by itself makes an interestingfield in the area of research. However some inborn defects and disease such as infection,failed arthrodesis, neoplasm, trauma makes the bone defects to grow beyond acritical size which the body cannot repair. For such patients the use of bio -degradablescaffolds, bone grafts, bone substitute materials becomes extremely necessaryto aid in healing. This makes the bone to be second most transplanted tissueacross the globe affecting over more than four million operations by replacingwith scaffolds or bone substitute materials annually.
In spite ofthese there are certain limitations to exercise this option. For example if wetake bone grafts from one part of the patient’s body in order to use it intheir own body, it is considered to be one of the better options but here alsothere are certain limitations. Autografts are restricted not only by the graftshape and size but also there lies certain risk to the patients includinginfection and severe pain post surgery. So to overcomethis difficulties, a significant branch of research commonly indicated by BoneTissue Engineering (BTE) is consideredto create alternatives to the bone grafts. Now 3D biodegradable scaffolds aredesigned to aid in bone regeneration. Bone is an exampleof a tissue which is continuously modelling and remodelling itself with the forcesacting on it. It is mainly composed of CaCO3, Ca(PO4)2,collagen and water.
The first two is mainly responsible for 60% to 70%of theweight of the bone and it gives stiffness to the bone which determines itscompressive strength. Collagen on the other hand is a protein which gives thebone its flexibility and contributes to its tensile strength. So duringfabricating a scaffold it is therefore logical to have a combination ofmaterials which aid in creating a composite scaffold which will enhance scaffoldbioactivity and structural biomimicry to be achieved