THERELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS (SES) AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OFIIUM UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS IN NATIONAL EXAMINATION SPM  BY: SOLEHAH BINTI MUHAMAD REZALI1324344  SEMESTER1 2017/2018    A PROJECT PAPER SUBMITTED AS A COURSE REQUIREMENT FOR RESEARCH METHODSIN COUNSELLING SUBJECT (EDG 3401)    KULLIYYAH OF EDUCATIONINTERNATIONAL ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY MALAYSIA Table of ContentCHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION            Introduction                                                                                        3            Statement of Problem                                                                         4            Purpose of Study                                                                                4            Significance of Study                                                                         4            Research Questions                                                                             5            Research Objectives                                                                            5            Conceptual Framework                                                                       5            Definition of Terms                                                                            6            Summary of Chapter                                                                           7CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW                                                                                     LiteratureReview                                                                                    8            Summary of Chapter                                                                           10CHAPTER 3 : RESEARCH METHODS                                                                                      Introduction                                                                                                11        ResearchDesign                                                                                 11        Population                                                                                           11Sample                                                                                                12       DataCollection Procedure                                                                  12        DataAnalysis Procedure                                                                    13        ResearchInstrumentation                                                                   13Summaryof Chapter                                                                           15CHAPTER 4 : RESULTS                                                                                       CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSION ANDRECOMMENDATION            Introduction            Summary of the Research            Highlights of Findings            Discussion            Recommendation for Future Research            Summary         References                                                                                                        CHAPTER1IntroductionWidespread study andresearch in the educational sociology expose a significant relationship betweenfamily socio-economic status (SES) and the academic achievement of students. Asingle SES variable is operationalized through dealings characterizing from threeperspective; parental education, occupation and income.

Socioeconomic status(SES) is a combined measure of an individual’s or family’s economic and socialposition relative to others, based on income, education, and occupation, whenanalyzing a family’s SES, the mother’s and father’s education and occupationare examined. Family socio-economic background includes family income, standardof house occupied or rented, family size, parental education and level offamily stability.  According to ………………socio-economicbackground is a most critical variable in the determination of achievement,stressing that the opportunity to achieve success is influenced by learning,availability of special help at home, reference materials and tutors. In the context of thisresearch, the academic achievement is focusing on the result of past nationalexamination of SPM; which is really well-known by the netizens that it plays abig role in contributing to the success of education continuity in the tertiarylevel.

The SPM result of the first year students of IIUM undergraduate studentsare analyze to determine it relationship with their family socioeconomicstatus.The issue ofsocioeconomic background and its relationship to students’ achievement can alsobe explored specifically on the level of parental education, income andoccupation. Literature on academic achievement seems to show that parent levelof education is important in predicting children’s academic achievement.  Most economically advantaged students mayhave higher access opportunity towards education facilities and assistants.

Thus, this currentstudy attempts to identify the effect of socioeconomic status on academicachievement of first year IIUM undergraduates in their past national exam, SPM. Statementof ProblemDespite of thestudents’ capability to enroll in a public university; IIUM, different studentsmay have experienced different difficulties during their schooling years inorder to achieve good result in SPM. The concern is that their SPM academic achievementis somehow affected by several factors, and one of it is socioeconomic status.Some of them may have full access towards education facilities and assistantand some of them may face extreme difficulties on achieving success in SPM withthe limited access towards education facilities and addition of financialconstraint of the family. Therefore, this research is to find out what are thefactors that affect academic achievement among IIUM undergraduate students intheir past national examination SPM. Purposeof StudyThis study aims to identify therelationship between socioeconomic status and academic performances of IIUMundergraduate students.   Significanceof Study….


… foundthat student’s family economic status played important roles in their livesboth inside and outside of school, and the researchers concluded that afamily’s economic status had the most significant influence on studentlearning. …………………… shared that the general perception was that students whobelonged to families with higher socioeconomic status would have greateropportunities to interact with the learning environment which resulted ingreater achievement as opposed to students who were from lower socioeconomicstatus who had less opportunities and less resources that caused them to lagbehind academically. Vygotsky’s constructivist theory suggested that students’learning was affected by their social interactions. It was therefore necessaryto understand the underpinnings and the impact of socio-economic status andother factors that are related to the academic achievement gaps. Therelationships need to be examined so that educational practitioners and thegovernment line respond to the underlying issues that are impacting thestudents.

In brief, it isimportant to analyze the strength of the impact of socioeconomic status towardsthe SPM academic achievement of students, so that the socioeconomic status gapcan be shorten and domino effect can be reduce in the generation chain. Thus,this group can be empower and attract the attention of the right group to helpthem. Research Questions1.     Is there any relationship between socioeconomicstatus and academic achievement of IIUM first yearundergraduate students in the past national examination SPM?2.      What is the relationship between parents’ occupation andacademic achievement?3.       What is the relationshipbetween parents’ income and academic achievement? ResearchObjectives1.     To identify the relationship between parents’ education and academic achievement of IIUM firstyear undergraduate students in the past national examination SPM2.     To examine the relationshipbetween parents’ occupation and academic achievement3.

      To explore the relationship between parents’ income and academicachievement  ConceptualFramework       Figure 1.1Figure 1.1 shows theframework line for this study. The researcher chose to focus on three types ofconcept which is level of confidence, personality of a person and academicperformances of IIUM undergraduate students.

The first concept which is the levelof confidence had been choose because the researcher wants to know is itinfluence someone’s academic performances. The other concept chosen by theresearcher which is personality; the researcher is curious to know is there anytype of personality that affect student’s academic performance. Lastly, theresearcher interested to understand the concept of academic performance whichis what makes this student’s achievement different from each other. Thus, byhaving these three concepts, we will be able to find the answer whetherpersonality really influence academic performance of IIUM undergraduatestudents.     Definitionof TermsRelationship The way inwhich two or more concepts, objects, or people are connected, or the state ofbeing connected.UndergraduateA studentat a college or university who has not yet earned a bachelor’s or equivalentdegree.

AcademicOf orrelating to education and scholarshipAcademic AchievementAcademicachievement is the outcome of education, the extent to which a student, teacheror institution has achieved their educational goalsSocioeconomic Status (SES)SES is aneconomic and sociological combined total measure of a person’s work experienceand of an individual’s or family’s economic and social position in relation toothers, based on income, education, and occupation.     Summaryof ChapterThe No Child LeftBehind Act (2001) required states to set educational standards and mandatedstates to report annually on the progress of all students towards thosestandards. Educational standards should be established so that through thedevelopment and maintenance of appropriate teaching and learning conditions,all students would have a fair opportunity to learn. This will help many peopleto understand and acknowledge well about students if they are having academicproblems.

In sum, it is suggestedthat attention be paid to with-in group differences so that policy makers andpractitioners avoid ineffective and counterproductive programs for minoritystudents, and provide extra education facilities and assistance to the groupwho cannot afford to get them on their own. In addition, the study about therelationship of socioeconomic and the academic achievement will be widespreadconducted in more details.  


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