The variety and richness of destinations aroundthe world have played an important role in the success of the tourismindustries. Tourist destination isabout all the activities, processes and spatial patterns which attracts touristand investors, it focuses on accessibility responding to the consumer’s need tohave easy access.
Tourists are continuously seeking new experiences such asauthenticity of destinations, learning about different cultures, learning aboutthe history of the destination and understanding the lifestyle of the hostcommunity. Tourism industry faces new and increasing challenges after each yearwhich arise from the changes in environment conditions and changes in touristbehavior and interest. Therefore, these new trends must be taken intoconsideration when planning and marketing the destination.Natural-formed attraction consistsof the environment and natural resources. Natural resources include wildlife,viewpoints, national parks and outstanding natural formed environment thatserves as a famous or national landmark for tourist to visit such as theNiagara Falls or The Grand Canyon.Culture attraction consists ofentertainments and human activities.There are also other types oftourism which are emerging like medical tourism.
However, the number ofvisitors and infrastructures which are needed to support these various forms oftourism can put a major strain on the different resources which attractvisitors.The spatial patterns shown on the maps evolved throughout the 19th and20th centuries. The Western European concentration included England, France and Italy.In the late 1900’s the upper classes of Victorian Britain undertook tourismdevelopment and was considered the first signs of modern day tourism. This tourismwas initially concentrated around/in Europe where majority young men or womentourist travelled to visit famous landmarks of classical Europe, includingcultural areas towns such as Venice, Florence or local spa-towns. Easyaccessibility such as railways were developed shortly after throughout Europein the mid 1840s’ making it cheaper to travel across Europe, but thisrestricted tourism to be strongly clustered around the European continentresulting in only a single concentration pattern. Any further development ofinternational travel had less investment ratio and further lack attractions orfacilities that other countries already excelled in. Europe involved the global pattern of tourism, where few areas of theworld were more dispersed and not fully involved.
Tourism has since then becametotally dispersed including continents such as Antarctica which once was anarea that wasn’t particularly visited but the diversity of tourist travellinghas transformed Antarctica into a tourism destination although its natural coldtemperature wasn’t particularly favored by some tourists. Some of these newareas are the fastest growing, experiencing rates of growth significantlyfaster than Europe More extensive international travel beyond this was unheard of.?largely explain the limited distancestravelled and the absence of attractions or facilities beyond Europe. Temporal pattern changed the 19th century of tourism andcountries such as India, Australia and N.Z had invested into internationalairports allowing foreign tourist to travel to and from. Temporal process created a dispersed patternand compared to earlier spatial patterns of tourist travelling to is alsolinked to transportation factor including airplanes travelling overseas hasimproved the distribution of tourist. In 2011, Australia had an internationalvisitor of about 1.
156million which was a 3.3% growth in economy revenue, Chinawith 18.6% growth having only 145,524 international tourists entering thecountry while other countries such as Japan suffered -21.4% in annual growththis is simply due to natural factors such as climate change which cause manyof the international tourist to be less appealed to travelling over to Japandue to either hot or cold temperature which is undesirable to differenttourist/or groups.Unlike Japan whichmainly focused on easy accessibility and its famous cultural exotic food andpractices, Europe continued to remain as the largest country for arrivingtourist and still receives 51.5% of tourist which is obviously clustered aroundthe regions of Europe which is noticeable comparing to other touristdestination that is less concentrated and a little more dispersed as Asia,Oceania and Australia receives only 22.0%, North and South America receiving15.
9% and Near east only at 5.6%, given by the report of world tourism trips;each country has different attractions which each cater to the different needsof a FIT, PT, SIT or GT traveler and not only personal interest affects therates of how only the Near-East had only received 5.6% of tourist is due to itstemperature being above 2011 global average: 13.9°C which was considered the hottest temperature since theearly 1880s’. Mediterraneanclimates are clustered around France, Spain and Italy Southern Europe’s most emblematic climate isthat of the Mediterranean climate, which has become a typically knowncharacteristic of the area, which is due to the large subtropical semi-permanentcenter of high atmospheric pressure found.
The Mediterranean climate coversmuch of Portugal, Spain, Southeast France, Italy, Albania, Greece, the Westernand Southern coastal regions of Turkey as well as the Mediterranean islands.Those areas of Mediterranean climate present similar vegetation’s suitabilityperfect for dry hills, small hills, pine forests and olive trees which affects the % rate ofinternational tourist. Cooler climates are concentrated in certain parts of SouthernEuropean countries, especially within the mountain ranges of Spain and Italy.Additionally, the north coast of Spain experiences a colder climate. Culturaltourism is one of the largest and fastest-growing global tourism markets.
Culture and creative industries are increasingly being used to promotedestinations and enhance their competitiveness and attractiveness. Manylocations are now actively developing their tangible and intangible cultural assetsas a means of developing comparative advantages in an increasingly competitivetourism marketplace, and to create local distinctiveness in the face of globalization.The Impact of Culture on Tourism isthe growing relationship between tourism and culture, and the way in which businesseshave together to become major drivers of destination attractiveness andcompetitiveness.
Based on recent case studies that illustrate the differentfacets of the relationship between tourism, culture and regional attractiveness,and the policy interventions which can be taken to enhance the relationship,this publication shows how a strong link between tourism and culture can befostered to help places become more attractive to tourists, as well asincreasing their competitiveness as locations to live, visit, work and investin. Cultural factor is important forinternational and domestic tourists because historical buildings, monuments,artifacts is usually concentrated in the UK, Germany, France, Spain, Italy andTurkey which one of the few countries in the European region to have a good %of international tourist arriving to explore the cultural understanding culturaldiversity and customs are centered around Europe cluster, Asia Cluster,American/ Mexico cluster cultural and sporting events are concentrated Worldcup, Oktoberfest, Olympics etc. Easy accessibility is built upon Channel tunnel, Railwaynetworks, High speed trains, Euro-duplex in Europe, Highways, internationalairports. – Europe/Asia/American clusters While cultural promotion is centered on the internet 100%pure NZ campaign, internet, TV videos Social media/Internet booking – TheInternet has had a major impact on tourism both for providers and consumers.This article classifies and analyzes the wealth of research published in majortourism journals over the past 10 years to identify major areas of focus andgaps in the research landscape related to the Internet in tourism. This makes accessibility to accommodation,events, vehicle booking and other business establishment much more accessiblebefore any domestic or international tourist travels to the location.
The economic and social significance of tourism are veryimportant and the two factors have affiliated to the response of a destination to touristarrivals or an attempt by a destination to attract tourists – this leads toboth vertical and horizontal integration of the tourist industry. ?Asthe economy can provide the necessary infrastructure and investment required forimproved tourism development which is significant to tourist for people and isnoticeable by how positive a country’s economy is operating and the socialfactors such as whether a tourist is an Independent (FIT), group (SIT), packageor tour group which has seen Australia to receive 41% of tourist as independenttravelers, 45% of SIT tourist and 31% of package tourist with China reasonably having31% of tour group tourist, this has an impact on each other that is determinehow they arrive as a tourist and where they go travel given their personalinterest and what type of tourist they are. Spatial patterns of historicallandmarks and attractions being connected via airports, state-highway makestravelling much more mobile and prosperous as tourism will increasingly becomesignificant for people.The economic significance of tourism development is massive, whether itis assessed at a global, national or local level. The most obvious economicsignificance is how fast the tourism sector has grown globally and the extentto which it impacts on the wider economy.
The significance can be summed up inthe following statistics: tourism provided 9% of global GDP with tourismdirectly supporting 91,900 NZ full-time jobs which accumulates of 4.8% of NewZealand’s workforce. Global tourism industry is expected to continue to grow by an average 4%annually which will increase expenditure on infrastructure during the temporalvariation changes and investment, which Australia, being one of the key marketsin tourism, had an annual growth of 3.3% by the end of the year 2011 andnoticeable tourism growth in China with an 18.6% growth in the same followingyear, Dec 2011. Economic significance of tourism development requires large investment,assessed at a global, local or national scale. International tourist arrivals grew by 3.0% nearthe end of 2011.
According to the April Interim Update of the UNWTO WorldTourism Barometer, growth was positive in all world (sub)regions during Januaryand February 2011, apart from the Middle East and North Africa. SouthAmerica and South Asia led growth (both at +15%), followed by Subsaharan Africa(+13%) and Central and Eastern Europe (+12%).Asiaand the Pacific, the region with one of the noticeable negative internationalexpenditure in 2011, saw its pace of revenue slow down (+6%), although from avery strong performance the previous year. Results were slow for the southern hemispherewhere Australia had suffered -1.5% growth and the north-east-western hemispherethe UK suffered -15.1% although USA suffered -9.1% which is small consideringJapan had only suffered a -34.
6% in international visitor expenditure makingitself noticeable when there is a decline in revenue from tourist, leavingChina to only have a positive revenue profit during the end of the month Sept,at 5.5%. The multiplier effect is evident at a global context of tourism where apaved road providing improved accessibility, could lead to further growth. Countries such as China has experienced aboom in tourism arrivals since the late 20th century, but still grewat a 18.6% growth as an average expenditure in tourism spent about $404million,since then it has attracted millions of tourists each year. China has sincethen become the top 5 visited countries and in 2011, the first ‘serous’investment into tourism was shown during the 2008 Olympics which demonstratedthe significance of tourism industry for China. Major investment in accommodationand transport were needed to connect shopping malls and accommodation centeredaround the National stadium in Beijing which now since has become a cluster ofa famous landmark and a shopping district thus had indirect effect onemplyoyment like construction, printing and other production line or work. Thisinvestment is important for not only the Olympics and future tourism investmentfor any other countries as it is going to support the rapid growing economicsector of tourism and while during 2011 many new facilities were developed andpre-existing facilities clustered around the event were also upgraded,including accommodations built close to the national stadium with easyaccessibility of 10-15min drive leading directly towards the national stadium.
Tourism industry has caught attention as one of the famous landmarks fortourist destinations, stimulating employment opportunities in China and yearsafter has supported the growth of the Chinese economy which resulted in 5.5%growth and an increase in disposable income by much of the Chinese population. While in N.Z.
tourism statistics showed that764,000 international tourists visited N.Z. in 2011 and that this is a growthin market and tourism industry. Tourism is a major industry for N.Z andemploying 91,900 Full time employment which is 4.8% of the total workforcewhich has been estimated as many as 1/10 New Zealanders being directly andindirectly affiliated in the tourism industry and earns 4.
8% of New Zealand’sGDP. Tourism contributes to the economy in different methods of providingpeople to have extra disposable income to spend elsewhere and taxes providingthe New Zealand government for investment in tourism development includingspatial variation and concentrating tourism infrastructure and landmarks allconnected via roads and state-highway.While some countries also took to tourism todiversify their economics GDP and investment to improve levels of developmentby creating employment opportunities. Many jobs opportunities have since then,from 2011, grew because of tourism development/growth which is also look byforeigners for employments but also providing the locals employment in lowerpaid sectors of the economy.The economic enterprise resultingfrom interacting between domestic and increasingly large number of tourists.
Itcreates social significance in the country’s culture which is influence by theinterest which creates a sense of pride when performing for tourist such as ‘MaoriMitai Tours’ in New Zealand. This is important to understand how widespread theculture is in both short and long term developments have become, but this isalso dependent on the spatial pattern of how and when tourist arrive andwhether they’re affected by natural factors. Any tourism destination (country)has a marginal control over the supply of tourists which is largely influencedby the economy of the source region.
But as tourism industry growover the next years it would create continuous issues both social and economicsuch as tourist damaging environment by walking on grounds that can be easilydamaged and interest foreigners to invest into businesses which leads to anoutflow of money coming out of New Zealand and elsewhere.