THEOLOGYI QUESTIONS RENEPACHE, The Inspiration and Authorityof Scripture CHAPTERONE, “Revelation from God”1. Why does humanity need revelation from above? (pp. 11-12) Answer: Humanity needs revelationfrom above for two reasons.
Humanity needs revelation because God isinaccessible to the creation. Secondly, by the fall, humanity needs revelationfrom above because man broke contact with God.2. Summarize the kinds of universal revelations (14-18). What is thecontradiction at the heart of unregenerate man? (15, bottom. Answer: There are two kinds ofuniversal revelations. The first is revelation of God in nature.
Naturalrevelation is the encounter of the characteristics of God through the study ofcreation. Within nature itself, there is clear evidence of the glory of God.Looking at a sunset, the multitudes of stars, and even the endless ocean waves;one might think of how great and mighty the creator of all things is. Thesecond kind of universal revelation is the voice of God in conscience. Paul inRomans 1:19 mentions that “for what can be known about God is plain to them,because God has shown it to them.” Paul is claiming that what can be known aboutGod is evident. Therefore, mankind can have a clear distinction of what ishimself through his works and craftsmanship.
An individual could learn fromnatural revelation because God has given them the mental capacity to have aconscience. The contradiction at the heart of the unregenerate man is that nextto indispensability of any logical reasoning, man has introduced an irrationalprinciple. 3. Summarize the methods and stages of revelation (20-24). Answer: Theophany is the clearvisualization of God; typically appearing in dreams and visions. There is asign known as the Angel of the Lord and appears to have qualities of GodHimself. Such attributes as having the name of God, being worshiped, andperceived as God has indicate that the holy messenger of the Lord is trulyJesus showed in the Old Testament.
Secondly, God appeared to Jacob in hisdreams, as well to Moses and Joshua. There were also miracles and signs thatdrew ones’ attention to Gods power and holiness. Not only did God reveal himselfthrough visions and miracles; but he revealed himself through prophets. Godgave them the words to speak, to ultimately bring him glory. Also, there isrevelation of God in Jesus Christ. Jesus is the Word made flesh, being theincarnate himself. Jesus Christ is the very heart of this revelation.
Lastly,the scriptures were used as a revelation to speak to the people. Prophets usedthese words to give individuals the message of Christ.CHAPTERTWO, “The Divine Word”4.
What are the advantages of speech? (28-29) Answer: The advantages of speech ishaving the ability to convey the subtlest shades of thought; words having thecapability to have more effect than acts themselves.5. Summarize the divine uses of the Word (29-30).
Answer: There are five uses of theWord. Foremost, the Word is eternal. This is used to show the Lord revealinghimself being eternal in heaven. Secondly, the Word is used as a creativeagent.
This indicates that the Word has been used as a tool for God to communicateto us that all of the world is from his craftsmanship. Thirdly, there is divineuse in the Old Testament. God spoke through prophets to simply allow his wordsto be a voice; allowing his revelation to remain transcendent. Not only wasthere divine use in the Old Testament; his divine Word was incarnated.
Jesushimself, was the Word made flesh. As previously stated, Jesus is the very heartof the Word who dwelt among the people. Lastly, the Word of the Holy Spirit.This was used to teach the disciples after the Pentecost. This reveals how theSpirit moves in the Word. The Spirit is used to guide and lead those into thetruth; which is God our Father who is in Heaven.
CHAPTERTHREE, “The Written Word”6. What are the advantages of a written Word? (32-34) Answer: The advantages are that thewritten texts calls to mind the original message. At the point when an instanceoccurred in Biblical history, God frequently advised a prophet to record whathappened. In these cases, the composed record flawlessly depicts all that theHoly Spirit esteemed fundamental for us to know and translate the instanceeffectively. By this we can see the full insight of God as the books arecollected and joined into a solitary book; the Bible.
Examination and the dynamicunfolding of God’s arrangement can be seen once the different works areassembled together in one book. Third, the composed word works freely of theauthor. Fourth, the composed message is all inclusive and indestructible. Thereare no issues of printing the Bible today. While the first message from theprophet or messenger may have been restricted to a little gathering of people,with various duplicates of the Word, just about everybody can have a duplicateand read it for themselves. In this manner, the Word is accessible. Fifth, thereading of the word makes the reader responsible.
The wicked demand that Godcreate some kind of wonder to fulfill him and demonstrate to him His reality.Nonetheless, God does not take orders from man. CHAPTERFOUR, “The Incarnate Word and the Inspired Word”7.What are the similarities and differences between the written Word and theIncarnate Word? (35f.) Answer: Christ and the Scripturesare inseparable.
As Christ is unceasing, likewise the views of God in Scriptureare unceasing (John 1:1; Ps. 119:89). Christ is the Holy Spirit, so likewise the basis of the Scripture is theHoly Spirit (Luke 1:35). Christ is the Word made flesh; just as the scriptureis the Word made physical.CHAPTERFIVE, “Definitions and Generalities”8. What is thedifference between revelation and inspiration? Answer: Revelation is God revealinghimself to his creation, where in contrast, inspiration is in which the writersof the Bible were inspired by God. 9. Summarize the teaching of 2 Timothy 3:16.
Answer: 10. Summarize Peter’s teaching on Scripture (49-50). Answer: Peter is talking about theHoly Spirit being the connecting thread though the old and new testament. Theholy spirit inspired the prophets to speak Gods truth throughout the Bible.
11. Explain each element of God speaking through the prophets (50-56). In what sense did the content of the message often surpass the comprehension ofthe writer of Scripture? (53-55).
Did the prophet always know that Godwas working through him? (55). Did the prophets believe the spoke theWord? (56) Answer: A man is not born as a Prophet;the Lord chooses him. There is a decisive meeting that God uses to determine ifa man is a suitable voice. God makes his voice known to the Prophets. His wordis hidden from us until he reveals it to us. More often than not God had spokento the prophets through visions and dreams. He instructed them to go forth andsend the letters that they had written, to the church.
The holy spirit was withthem, and influenced the words they spoke to others. His truth flowed through them.They did so willingly even when they did not know or comprehend what the Lordwas telling them to say. In their hearts, they knew that the Lord was right.They trusted in his words and visions even when they did not make sense to thespeaker. CHAPTERSIX, “Theories of Inspiration”12. Identify the four views of inspiration. Summarize Pache’s evaluation ofeach.
What was Bultmann’s view and what is wrong with it? (see esp. p.64).
Did the Reformers teach the dictation view? (67-68).Answer: 1. It is only a remarkablehuman book without divine inspiration. This theory is a “denial of trueinspiration”. Our faith has no basis if we believe this view. If the Bible isnot Devine inspiration then its contents are invalid. For a book like this tobe written we would have to be above God. 2.
The bible is only partially inspired by God. This view of the B bible assumesthat man’s thoughts were inspired but not the words. While it is true that awriter’s style shows throughout books of scripture the Bible cannot be writtenthis way.
Man is imperfect. His thoughts and actions are not pure. If this viewwere true there would be many instances of inconsistency. The prophetsthemselves clearly state the distinction between thoughts and words. They knewthat the words spoken were not their own.
We should not confuse the two. 3.The Bible is a book which is only divine, having been dictated mechanically tomen. This view state that man was just a tool.
With this the authorspersonalities, thoughts and feelings are completely invalid. However, there areso many cases that we see the authors spirits shining through the pages. IF themen writing the Bible did write in this way there would be no instance offtheir personalities in the writings. This belief was not taught by theReformers of old. They believed that God had spoken through man. This is a newage way of thinking that is easy defeated by the analysis of the writer’sstyles and feelings. To believe this view is to ignore our free will andindividuality.
CHAPTERSEVEN, “Plenary and Verbal Inspiration of Scriptures”13. What is “plenary” inspiration? (one sentence answer)Answer: It means that inspirationis entire and without restriction. 14. Why must inspiration extend to words? (73, bottom, to 74, top; note Sauer’squotation, 74-75; and points made on 75-77) Note that this issue isimportant because, under the influence of Neo-Orthodoxy and some views oflanguage, many people today do not think revelation can be in specific words.Answer: The word is God’s word. Inhis words lay truth, his word is the law.
We must believe that his words areinspiration. This is the main method through which we communicate. We believein this due to the connections between thoughts and actions (words). We can’tbelieve that a man’s thoughts are inspired but not the words. They areinterlinked. His words are commands. No matter what changes befall ourlanguages we have been able to stay true to his word even in translation. CHAPTEREIGHT, “The Bible–The Word of God”15.
How do we know that the Bible,and not just Jesus, is the Word of God, and that the Bible does not merelycontain the Word of God? (Note that the unnamed theologian on p. 80 isBarth and the view he founded is Neo-Orthodoxy.) (Summarize 81-86)Answer: The bible is more than justthe story of Jesus Christ. The Bible is constantly telling us that it is theword of God. Not partly the word but the whole word. His word is more thanwords, it is a promise that starts in Genesis and continues on in Revelation.The prophecies made through the Old Testament are proven in The New Testament.
When referring to the past the new testament writers say that “God said” Thebelieved that the words that were written were truth. They are to be treated asequally as the New Testament. They knewthey were adding to the word of God when they wrote the New Testament, that thewords that flowed through them was the Word of God. Jesus alone cannot be theword of God, to say this is to deny the Old testament and God word within it. CHAPTERNINE, “Inspiration of the New Testament”16.
Write one key verse each for Jesus’ inspiration, the promise of inspiration tothe writers of the NT, the inspiration of Paul.Answer: John 8:28, Hebrews 5:11,Acts 1:8, Galatians 1:11-12 17.What indicates that Paul’s letters were regarded as Scripture during hislifetime? (93-94)Answer: The words he wrote wereintegral to the function of the church. Often, we see his writings mentioned asHoly scripture. His teaching was put into practice by those he sent the lettersto. CHAPTERTEN, “Quotations from the Old Testament in the New”18.
How many OT quotations and allusions appear in the NT? What are thenumbers and percentages? How many books of the Bible are quoted oralluded to? How many books of the Apocrypha? Answer: There are at least 295quotes/ direct references to the Old Testament in the New Testament. This addsup to about to 10 percent of text in the New testament. Throughout all of theNew Testament none of the reference the Apocrypha. What some say is a missingportion of the Bible. This should be proof that this is not part of God’s Word.
19. Describe the practice ofparaphrasing the OT.Answer: They did not usetraditional symbols that we use today. They used the Old Testament as a way toexpand the meaning of what they wrote.
They did this to connect to those whohad spent years studying the Old Testament texts. 20. Did the NT writers use the Septuagint? When did they amend it? (100) Answer: They used this text whenapplicable to the Hebrews at the Time.
This was to reach a wider audience. Theydid amend the Septuagint when they wanted to translate text correctly orcorrect the incorrect meaning that had been lost in translation. CHAPTERELEVEN, “Progression in Revelation”21. In what way is revelation progressive? (104f.) Answer: God spoke, promises andprophecies were fulfilled, instruction that were given were relevant forIsrael, the lord led the people to the Holy Spirit, the laws they had were inpreparation for God’s grace, and Jesus Christ has fulfilled Gods promises todayand in the future.
CHAPTERTWELVE, “The Unity of the Bible”22. What are the unusual facts regarding the unity of the Bible? (111) Answer: There were about 45 peoplethat wrote the Bible, many of these men were from different walks of life andyet the Bible is cohesive, even hundreds of years after Jesus Christ. 23.
Summarize the parallels of theopening and closing books of the Bible. Answer: A creation of new heavenand new earth. Beginning and end of sin. A tree of life. God starting theprocess of the redemption of humanity.
This is completed in Revelation. 24. How does the Jewish priesthood prefigure the detail of the new covenant? Answer: The Jewish priesthoodprefigure the detail of the new covenant by the priest being compared to Jesus.There is a similarity in which both would go to God to plead on the behalf ofthe people.CHAPTERTHIRTEEN, “Inerrancy and Inspiration”25. How does the Bible indicate its own inerrancy?Answer: The Bible indicates its owninerrancy by testifying to itself; as the author’s books witness to each other.26. Describe the extent of biblical inerrancy.
(123-127) Answer: Inerrancy does not meanuniformity in all the details given in analogous accounts written by differentauthors. Biblical inerrancy does not exclude the use of pictures and symbols.It also does not imply the use of an exact technical vocabulary, conformed topresent scientific terminology. Inerrancy has to do with the whole of the biblicalmessage. 27. How would you answer objections to inerrancy? (127-134) Answer: God guided the writers inthe composition of His message. We trust that the Scriptures plainly show thatGod desirously protected His word to guarantee the inerrancy of the firstoriginal copies.
Peter supports this in 2 Peter 1:20-21.28. If we no longer have the original manuscripts, what difference does it makethat they had no errors? Answer: Well it is important becausewithin the Word lies the true character of God. If God could not speak throughhis word inherently; the nature of God is at risk. CHAPTERFOURTEEN, “Difficulties of the Bible”29. Of imaginary difficulties, how do you resolve the issues of the firmament,”doublets,” and the “whale” in Jonah? Answer: The occurrence when Abrahamlies about Sarah being his sister happens twice and is in this way viewed as a mistake.The giving of the Law happened twice. The lessons of the Sermon on the Mountare given in both Matt.
5-7 and Luke 6:20-49. When Jesus fed the 4,000 and the5,000, are doublets, thought to be confirmation of mistake. All thingsconsidered, how can it be that somebody (i.e. Abraham) may utilize a similarlie twice on the off chance that it worked the first run through? Why is it oddthat the substance of Christ’s instructing is comparable on different events?For what reason could Christ not do miracles (nourishing 4,000 on one event and5,000 on another)? Obviously, Jesus mended blinded men on differentcircumstances.
The disagreement isrepresented that it is basic information that a whale’s throat is too littlefor a man to pass. In this way, the Bible must have a mistake. As a matter offact, resolving the issue, the right interpretation is “great fish”,not “whale” (Jonah 2:1).30. Of the difficulties resolved through better information, what are the issues ofgeocentrism, the Hittites, and Nineveh? Answer: It was for quite some timeimagined that the earth was stationary and the focal point of the universe. Inregard to the Hittites, the issue was that the Hittites were mentioned 46 timesand the people of Heth were mentioned 14 times. These people were not mentionedin secular history. As a result, this makes their existence skeptic.
31. Of the possible harmonization’s, how might we deal with the two creations, andthe blind men of Jericho? Answer: The creation of man indicatesthat God would have a relationship with man. The blind men of Jericho indicatethat 32. What is significant about what the Bible does not include? (154-55) CHAPTERFIFTEEN, “The Canon”33. What is a prominent liberal explanation for the source of the writingsattributed Moses? How does Pache answer the view?34. What are the arguments against the inspiration of the Apocrypha?35.
Summarize the steps to canonization of the NT. What were the doubts aboutsome of the books? CHAPTERSIXTEEN, “Transmission of the Text–The Variants”36. How do the carefulness of the Masorites, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Malabarmanuscript, and the work of scholars like Kennicott, and the transcription ofnames, all show the reliability of the OT manuscripts?37.
Briefly describe the number and quality of NT manuscripts. Why is itsignificant? CHAPTERSEVENTEEN, “Illumination”38. What is illumination and the inner witness of the Holy Spirit? (Note thetwo points, p.
200, bottom). Why are they important?39. How are inspiration andillumination confused? What is “illuminism”?40. According to Pache, what are the requirements for receiving illumination? CHAPTEREIGHTEEN, “Jesus Christ and Holy Scripture”41. What was Christ’s attitude toward Scripture? CHAPTERNINETEEN, “The Apostles and Holy Scripture”42.
Summarize the views of Paul, the writer of Hebrews, James, and Peter. CHAPTERTWENTY, “The Testimony of the Church…
“43. Summarize the views of each: the Church Fathers, Reformers, greatconfessions of Protestant groups. CHAPTERTWENTY-ONE, “Limits of Biblical Criticism…”44. What is higher criticism? Is it necessarily bad? 45.
What is JEDP? (251)46. What is the problem with saying that the Bible contains the Word of God? CHAPTERTWENTY-TWO, “The Supernatural Characteristics…”47. Summarize fulfilled prophecies (283-84) and predictions of the end times. 48.
Summarize the spiritual power of Scripture.49. What are the problems with the Koran, and Hindu cosmology? (298-99) CHAPTERTWENTY-THREE, “The Preeminence of Scripture”50.
Martyn Loyd-Jones said thatthe preaching and exposition of the Bible establishes its authority. Doyou agree? (306)51. What are the fruits of accepting the authority of Scripture?