PACHE, The Inspiration and

of Scripture


ONE, “Revelation from God”

Why does humanity need revelation from above?  (pp. 11-12)

            Answer: Humanity needs revelation
from above for two reasons. Humanity needs revelation because God is
inaccessible to the creation. Secondly, by the fall, humanity needs revelation
from above because man broke contact with God.

Summarize the kinds of universal revelations (14-18).  What is the
contradiction at the heart of unregenerate man? (15, bottom.

            Answer: There are two kinds of
universal revelations. The first is revelation of God in nature. Natural
revelation is the encounter of the characteristics of God through the study of
creation. Within nature itself, there is clear evidence of the glory of God.
Looking at a sunset, the multitudes of stars, and even the endless ocean waves;
one might think of how great and mighty the creator of all things is. The
second kind of universal revelation is the voice of God in conscience. Paul in
Romans 1:19 mentions that “for what can be known about God is plain to them,
because God has shown it to them.” Paul is claiming that what can be known about
God is evident. Therefore, mankind can have a clear distinction of what is
himself through his works and craftsmanship. An individual could learn from
natural revelation because God has given them the mental capacity to have a
conscience. The contradiction at the heart of the unregenerate man is that next
to indispensability of any logical reasoning, man has introduced an irrational


Summarize the methods and stages of revelation (20-24).

            Answer: Theophany is the clear
visualization of God; typically appearing in dreams and visions. There is a
sign known as the Angel of the Lord and appears to have qualities of God
Himself. Such attributes as having the name of God, being worshiped, and
perceived as God has indicate that the holy messenger of the Lord is truly
Jesus showed in the Old Testament. Secondly, God appeared to Jacob in his
dreams, as well to Moses and Joshua. There were also miracles and signs that
drew ones’ attention to Gods power and holiness. Not only did God reveal himself
through visions and miracles; but he revealed himself through prophets. God
gave them the words to speak, to ultimately bring him glory. Also, there is
revelation of God in Jesus Christ. Jesus is the Word made flesh, being the
incarnate himself. Jesus Christ is the very heart of this revelation. Lastly,
the scriptures were used as a revelation to speak to the people. Prophets used
these words to give individuals the message of Christ.

TWO, “The Divine Word”

What are the advantages of speech? (28-29)

            Answer: The advantages of speech is
having the ability to convey the subtlest shades of thought; words having the
capability to have more effect than acts themselves.

Summarize the divine uses of the Word (29-30).

            Answer: There are five uses of the
Word. Foremost, the Word is eternal. This is used to show the Lord revealing
himself being eternal in heaven. Secondly, the Word is used as a creative
agent. This indicates that the Word has been used as a tool for God to communicate
to us that all of the world is from his craftsmanship. Thirdly, there is divine
use in the Old Testament. God spoke through prophets to simply allow his words
to be a voice; allowing his revelation to remain transcendent. Not only was
there divine use in the Old Testament; his divine Word was incarnated. Jesus
himself, was the Word made flesh. As previously stated, Jesus is the very heart
of the Word who dwelt among the people. Lastly, the Word of the Holy Spirit.
This was used to teach the disciples after the Pentecost. This reveals how the
Spirit moves in the Word. The Spirit is used to guide and lead those into the
truth; which is God our Father who is in Heaven.

THREE, “The Written Word”

What are the advantages of a written Word? (32-34)

            Answer: The advantages are that the
written texts calls to mind the original message. At the point when an instance
occurred in Biblical history, God frequently advised a prophet to record what
happened. In these cases, the composed record flawlessly depicts all that the
Holy Spirit esteemed fundamental for us to know and translate the instance
effectively. By this we can see the full insight of God as the books are
collected and joined into a solitary book; the Bible. Examination and the dynamic
unfolding of God’s arrangement can be seen once the different works are
assembled together in one book. Third, the composed word works freely of the
author. Fourth, the composed message is all inclusive and indestructible. There
are no issues of printing the Bible today. While the first message from the
prophet or messenger may have been restricted to a little gathering of people,
with various duplicates of the Word, just about everybody can have a duplicate
and read it for themselves. In this manner, the Word is accessible. Fifth, the
reading of the word makes the reader responsible. The wicked demand that God
create some kind of wonder to fulfill him and demonstrate to him His reality.
Nonetheless, God does not take orders from man.


FOUR, “The Incarnate Word and the Inspired Word”

What are the similarities and differences between the written Word and the
Incarnate Word? (35f.)

            Answer: Christ and the Scriptures
are inseparable. As Christ is unceasing, likewise the views of God in Scripture
are unceasing (John 1:1; Ps. 119:89). 
Christ is the Holy Spirit, so likewise the basis of the Scripture is the
Holy Spirit (Luke 1:35). Christ is the Word made flesh; just as the scripture
is the Word made physical.

FIVE, “Definitions and Generalities”

           What is the
difference between revelation and inspiration?

            Answer: Revelation is God revealing
himself to his creation, where in contrast, inspiration is in which the writers
of the Bible were inspired by God.

Summarize the teaching of 2 Timothy 3:16.


Summarize Peter’s teaching on Scripture (49-50).

            Answer: Peter is talking about the
Holy Spirit being the connecting thread though the old and new testament. The
holy spirit inspired the prophets to speak Gods truth throughout the Bible.

Explain each element of God speaking through the prophets (50-56). 
In what sense did the content of the message often surpass the comprehension of
the writer of Scripture? (53-55).  Did the prophet always know that God
was working through him? (55).  Did the prophets believe the spoke the
Word? (56)


Answer: A man is not born as a Prophet;
the Lord chooses him. There is a decisive meeting that God uses to determine if
a man is a suitable voice. God makes his voice known to the Prophets. His word
is hidden from us until he reveals it to us. More often than not God had spoken
to the prophets through visions and dreams. He instructed them to go forth and
send the letters that they had written, to the church. The holy spirit was with
them, and influenced the words they spoke to others. His truth flowed through them.
They did so willingly even when they did not know or comprehend what the Lord
was telling them to say. In their hearts, they knew that the Lord was right.
They trusted in his words and visions even when they did not make sense to the


SIX, “Theories of Inspiration”

Identify the four views of inspiration.  Summarize Pache’s evaluation of
each.  What was Bultmann’s view and what is wrong with it? (see esp. p.
64).  Did the Reformers teach the dictation view? (67-68).

Answer: 1. It is only a remarkable
human book without divine inspiration. This theory is a “denial of true
inspiration”. Our faith has no basis if we believe this view. If the Bible is
not Devine inspiration then its contents are invalid. For a book like this to
be written we would have to be above God.

The bible is only partially inspired by God. This view of the B bible assumes
that man’s thoughts were inspired but not the words. While it is true that a
writer’s style shows throughout books of scripture the Bible cannot be written
this way. Man is imperfect. His thoughts and actions are not pure. If this view
were true there would be many instances of inconsistency. The prophets
themselves clearly state the distinction between thoughts and words. They knew
that the words spoken were not their own. We should not confuse the two.

The Bible is a book which is only divine, having been dictated mechanically to
men. This view state that man was just a tool. With this the authors
personalities, thoughts and feelings are completely invalid. However, there are
so many cases that we see the authors spirits shining through the pages. IF the
men writing the Bible did write in this way there would be no instance off
their personalities in the writings. This belief was not taught by the
Reformers of old. They believed that God had spoken through man. This is a new
age way of thinking that is easy defeated by the analysis of the writer’s
styles and feelings. To believe this view is to ignore our free will and


SEVEN, “Plenary and Verbal Inspiration of Scriptures”

What is “plenary” inspiration? (one sentence answer)

Answer: It means that inspiration
is entire and without restriction.


Why must inspiration extend to words? (73, bottom, to 74, top; note Sauer’s
quotation, 74-75; and points made on 75-77) Note that this issue is
important because, under the influence of Neo-Orthodoxy and some views of
language, many people today do not think revelation can be in specific words.

Answer: The word is God’s word. In
his words lay truth, his word is the law. We must believe that his words are
inspiration. This is the main method through which we communicate. We believe
in this due to the connections between thoughts and actions (words). We can’t
believe that a man’s thoughts are inspired but not the words. They are
interlinked. His words are commands. No matter what changes befall our
languages we have been able to stay true to his word even in translation.


EIGHT, “The Bible–The Word of God”

         How do we know that the Bible,
and not just Jesus, is the Word of God, and that the Bible does not merely
contain the Word of God?  (Note that the unnamed theologian on p. 80 is
Barth and the view he founded is Neo-Orthodoxy.)  (Summarize 81-86)

Answer: The bible is more than just
the story of Jesus Christ. The Bible is constantly telling us that it is the
word of God. Not partly the word but the whole word. His word is more than
words, it is a promise that starts in Genesis and continues on in Revelation.
The prophecies made through the Old Testament are proven in The New Testament.
When referring to the past the new testament writers say that “God said” The
believed that the words that were written were truth. They are to be treated as
equally as the New Testament.  They knew
they were adding to the word of God when they wrote the New Testament, that the
words that flowed through them was the Word of God. Jesus alone cannot be the
word of God, to say this is to deny the Old testament and God word within it.


NINE, “Inspiration of the New Testament”

Write one key verse each for Jesus’ inspiration, the promise of inspiration to
the writers of the NT, the inspiration of Paul.

Answer: John 8:28, Hebrews 5:11,
Acts 1:8, Galatians 1:11-12


What indicates that Paul’s letters were regarded as Scripture during his
lifetime? (93-94)

Answer: The words he wrote were
integral to the function of the church. Often, we see his writings mentioned as
Holy scripture. His teaching was put into practice by those he sent the letters


TEN, “Quotations from the Old Testament in the New”

How many OT quotations and allusions appear in the NT?  What are the
numbers and percentages?  How many books of the Bible are quoted or
alluded to?  How many books of the Apocrypha?


Answer: There are at least 295
quotes/ direct references to the Old Testament in the New Testament. This adds
up to about to 10 percent of text in the New testament. Throughout all of the
New Testament none of the reference the Apocrypha. What some say is a missing
portion of the Bible. This should be proof that this is not part of God’s Word.

         Describe the practice of
paraphrasing the OT.

Answer: They did not use
traditional symbols that we use today. They used the Old Testament as a way to
expand the meaning of what they wrote. They did this to connect to those who
had spent years studying the Old Testament texts.

Did the NT writers use the Septuagint?  When did they amend it? 


Answer: They used this text when
applicable to the Hebrews at the Time. This was to reach a wider audience. They
did amend the Septuagint when they wanted to translate text correctly or
correct the incorrect meaning that had been lost in translation.


ELEVEN, “Progression in Revelation”

In what way is revelation progressive?  (104f.)


Answer: God spoke, promises and
prophecies were fulfilled, instruction that were given were relevant for
Israel, the lord led the people to the Holy Spirit, the laws they had were in
preparation for God’s grace, and Jesus Christ has fulfilled Gods promises today
and in the future.


TWELVE, “The Unity of the Bible”

What are the unusual facts regarding the unity of the Bible? (111)


Answer: There were about 45 people
that wrote the Bible, many of these men were from different walks of life and
yet the Bible is cohesive, even hundreds of years after Jesus Christ.

         Summarize the parallels of the
opening and closing books of the Bible.


Answer: A creation of new heaven
and new earth. Beginning and end of sin. A tree of life. God starting the
process of the redemption of humanity. This is completed in Revelation.

How does the Jewish priesthood prefigure the detail of the new covenant?


Answer: The Jewish priesthood
prefigure the detail of the new covenant by the priest being compared to Jesus.
There is a similarity in which both would go to God to plead on the behalf of
the people.

THIRTEEN, “Inerrancy and Inspiration”

How does the Bible indicate its own inerrancy?

Answer: The Bible indicates its own
inerrancy by testifying to itself; as the author’s books witness to each other.

Describe the extent of biblical inerrancy.  (123-127)

            Answer: Inerrancy does not mean
uniformity in all the details given in analogous accounts written by different
authors. Biblical inerrancy does not exclude the use of pictures and symbols.
It also does not imply the use of an exact technical vocabulary, conformed to
present scientific terminology. Inerrancy has to do with the whole of the biblical

How would you answer objections to inerrancy? (127-134)


Answer: God guided the writers in
the composition of His message. We trust that the Scriptures plainly show that
God desirously protected His word to guarantee the inerrancy of the first
original copies. Peter supports this in 2 Peter 1:20-21.

If we no longer have the original manuscripts, what difference does it make
that they had no errors?

            Answer: Well it is important because
within the Word lies the true character of God. If God could not speak through
his word inherently; the nature of God is at risk.

FOURTEEN, “Difficulties of the Bible”

Of imaginary difficulties, how do you resolve the issues of the firmament,
“doublets,” and the “whale” in Jonah?

            Answer: The occurrence when Abraham
lies about Sarah being his sister happens twice and is in this way viewed as a mistake.
The giving of the Law happened twice. The lessons of the Sermon on the Mount
are given in both Matt. 5-7 and Luke 6:20-49. When Jesus fed the 4,000 and the
5,000, are doublets, thought to be confirmation of mistake. All things
considered, how can it be that somebody (i.e. Abraham) may utilize a similar
lie twice on the off chance that it worked the first run through? Why is it odd
that the substance of Christ’s instructing is comparable on different events?
For what reason could Christ not do miracles (nourishing 4,000 on one event and
5,000 on another)? Obviously, Jesus mended blinded men on different
circumstances.  The disagreement is
represented that it is basic information that a whale’s throat is too little
for a man to pass. In this way, the Bible must have a mistake. As a matter of
fact, resolving the issue, the right interpretation is “great fish”,
not “whale” (Jonah 2:1).

Of the difficulties resolved through better information, what are the issues of
geocentrism, the Hittites, and Nineveh?

            Answer: It was for quite some time
imagined that the earth was stationary and the focal point of the universe. In
regard to the Hittites, the issue was that the Hittites were mentioned 46 times
and the people of Heth were mentioned 14 times. These people were not mentioned
in secular history. As a result, this makes their existence skeptic.

Of the possible harmonization’s, how might we deal with the two creations, and
the blind men of Jericho?

            Answer: The creation of man indicates
that God would have a relationship with man. The blind men of Jericho indicate


What is significant about what the Bible does not include? (154-55)



FIFTEEN, “The Canon”

What is a prominent liberal explanation for the source of the writings
attributed Moses?  How does Pache answer the view?

What are the arguments against the inspiration of the Apocrypha?

Summarize the steps to canonization of the NT.  What were the doubts about
some of the books?


SIXTEEN, “Transmission of the Text–The Variants”

How do the carefulness of the Masorites, the Samaritan Pentateuch, the Malabar
manuscript, and the work of scholars like Kennicott, and the transcription of
names, all show the reliability of the OT manuscripts?

Briefly describe the number and quality of NT manuscripts.  Why is it


SEVENTEEN, “Illumination”

What is illumination and the inner witness of the Holy Spirit?  (Note the
two points, p. 200, bottom).  Why are they important?

         How are inspiration and
illumination confused?  What is “illuminism”?

According to Pache, what are the requirements for receiving illumination?


EIGHTEEN, “Jesus Christ and Holy Scripture”

What was Christ’s attitude toward Scripture?


NINETEEN, “The Apostles and Holy Scripture”

Summarize the views of Paul, the writer of Hebrews, James, and Peter.


TWENTY, “The Testimony of the Church…”

Summarize the views of each:  the Church Fathers, Reformers, great
confessions of Protestant groups.


TWENTY-ONE, “Limits of Biblical Criticism…”

What is higher criticism?  Is it necessarily bad? 

What is JEDP?  (251)

What is the problem with saying that the Bible contains the Word of God?


TWENTY-TWO, “The Supernatural Characteristics…”

Summarize fulfilled prophecies (283-84) and predictions of the end times. 

Summarize the spiritual power of Scripture.

What are the problems with the Koran, and Hindu cosmology? (298-99)


TWENTY-THREE, “The Preeminence of Scripture”

         Martyn Loyd-Jones said that
the preaching and exposition of the Bible establishes its authority.  Do
you agree?  (306)

What are the fruits of accepting the authority of Scripture?




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