Nithtingale’s Environmental Theory, was considered the first theorist nurse/
she defined the act of utililizing the environment of the patients and nurses
consist of environmental factors such as pure or fresh air, pure water,
efficient drainage, cleanliness, light, noise. Environmental factors of
Nightingale attain significance when hospitals considers sanitation that
reliable, uneducated and incompetent care as a health care providers.
Additional for those Nightingale’s
factors also contribute stressed that are surrounds the well-being and
considered in relation to the health status or health state of health care
providers, the importance of keeping the working environment calm and
maintaining a noise-free environment that affect on both client and health care
providers. Poor ventilation of the work environment deprives both persons.
believed that nursing should be health as well as they engaged to ill persons.
Also she supported the importance of looking beyond the individuals to the
social environment in which both client and health care providers can live.
Lazarus and Cohen (1977) classified
workspace stressors into three distinct categories, namely; 1) cataclysmic
phenomena or sudden, powerful events that affect many people, such as natural
disasters; 2) powerful events that only affect fewer people, such as family
crises, and 3) daily hassles or repetitive problems of daily life, such as work
frustration and commuting. This concept of ‘daily hassles’ need to be
distinguished from other major life events, as ‘daily hassles’ alone closer to
the person’s daily experience (Kanner, Coyne, Schaefer, & Lazarus, 1981).
The stress produced by our ‘daily hassles’ is generated by stable, repetitive
or chronic conditions that may annoy an individual employee on a regular basis.
Therefore, this concept of ‘daily hassles’ stress is useful in the study of the
physical environment on people’s behavior, specifically referring to work
behavior related to job performance. The study of the ‘daily hassles’ in the
working environment, has resulted in discovery of five influencing factors:
noise, air, temperature, light and color, and space. McCoy and Evans (2005)
characterized how physical environment could interfere with the attainment of
work objectives. These stressors; noise, air, temperature, light and color, and
space in the work environment affect an individual employee’s performance
adversely in a high intensity level or prolonged exposure. This is when the
stressor delay the abilities to process and to understand the number and
predictability of ‘signals’, in which increase with task complexity. However,
this environmental stressor also could influence physiological processes,
produce negative affection, limit motivation and impede social interaction. Moreover,
a mismatch between the demands placed on workers and the physical environment
in which they meet those demands is by definition stress-generating. The
definition of misfit refers to the environment places inappropriate or
excessive demands on users, specifically employee, in spite of their ability to
adapt and adjust their work behavior (Alexander, 1970; Herring, Szigeti, &
Vischer, 1977; Preiser, 1983; Zeisel, 2005). McCoy and Evans (2005) also
emphasized on the temporal dimension of ‘daily hassles’: any environmental
element that is recognize as temporarily annoying cannot be regarded as a
stressor, compared to the same element that causes annoyance over time. Vischer
(2007) claimed that the sustained impact of adverse environmental elements may
also cause a delayed reaction, affecting performance immediately after the
eradication of the stressor elements in the working environment.