There have been numerous implementations ofbiopolymers applicability in medical and industrial fields. Properties likebiocompatibility, biodegradation to non-toxic end products, high bio-activityhave accounted for its vast applications. Recently, the usage of synthetic polymers are swiftlypicking up speed among individuals mostly because of its benefits of its advancedproperties with minimal effort and weight. In any case, because of the lowbiodegradability, these polymers are playing a noteworthy part to save thenature.Microbes have proved to bea reliable biodegradable and renewable source for biopolymer production.
Anumber of researchers are working on the thediscovery of more and more novel microbial sources of polymers.In recent years, with such performance and price,waste bio-mass based biopolymer extraction offers tremendous merits for wastemanagement.1. Biopolymersrecovery from various sources and levelsAs a lignocellulosic feedstock, Biomass waste holdsthree main biopolymers: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Due to theirchemical composition Biomass waste delivers an extraordinary source ofbiopolymers susceptible to alteration and revalorization, such as celluloseacetates, which can be used as raw materials for membrane production further.These can even be obtained by the use of ionic liquids based on carbohydrateswith the application of new environmental regulation for green technologies.They are utilised for the production of a number of value-added compounds.
Numerousalternate processing approaches have been extensively considered to recoupbiomass polymers. The key motivation behind pre-treatment is to clear maximumhemicellulose and lignin possible, while at the same time keeping enoughcellulose intact. The yield extract of cellulose rely upon the pre-treatmenttechnique, which still remains the most costly and tedious step in biomassextraction. Moreover, it is extremely hard to sum up the procedure conditionsnotwithstanding for a comparative sort of biomass because of the expansivefluctuation of the crude material creation. Cellulose is at present isolatedfrom lignocellulosic materials. Extractionof lignin biopolymerAs far as the future is concerned, Lignin is considered asone of the most assuring renewable resource. Lessening of synthetic adhesiveusage in wood composite production by the development of lignocellulosicmaterials is a challenge.
Coir pith is plentifully available waste productwhich is lignin rich. The manner of energy supply and chemical extractionprotocols results in the structural changes there by affecting the physical andchemical characteristics of lignin biomolecule(Panamgama, 2017). Extractionof cellulose biopolymerDue to the advantages ofadvanced mechanical properties with affordable price and weight, syntheticpolymers are promptly spreading among people in the current period of time.However, synthetic materials produce environmental pollution due to the lowbiodegradability. Hence the productions of biodegradable materials are playingan important role to save the environment. By the actions of micro-organisms inthe environment, all natural materials are biologically degraded.
The biomassis mainly consists of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin and they are the mostabundant biopolymers present on the earth(Sutherland, 2007). Due to the polysaccharide structure, cellulose andhemicellulose have comparatively high biodegradability out of the threebiopolymers. With lack of attention Sawmill waste is one of the major waste.Therefore, the main focus of research is to produce low cost, biodegradablecomposite material for applications of engineering by extracting cellulosicmaterials present in sawmill waste. Extraction and characterization of chitinThe most abundant natural amino polysaccharide isChitin and is estimated to be produced annually almost as much as cellulose. Ithas become of great interest as an industrialized resource as well as a newfunctional material of high potential in various fields. Chitin wassuccessfully obtained from the scales of a common Carp fish and characterizedfor its functional properties(Sachindra andMahendrakar, 2005; Teli and Sheikh, 2012).Our society is currently facingthe twin challenges of resource depletion and waste accumulation leading torapidly escalating raw material costs and increasingly expensive andrestrictive waste disposal legislation.
The variety of food processesused in the foodanddrink industry globally generate food supply chain waste on a multi tonne scale everyyear. Such resides include wheat straw surpluses, spent coffee grounds orcitrus peels, all of which represent a resource for an integrated, productfocused biorefinery(Kaurand Dhillon, 2015). Orange peel is particularlyinteresting: two marketable components, pectin and D-limonene, canbe produced together with several flavonoids under the same conditions at a litre scale usinglow temperature microwave treatment(Pfaltzgraffet al., 2013). In general there are three ways to producebiopolymers, – Polymers directly extracted or removed from biomass such as somepolysaccharides and proteins.
– Polymers produced by microorganisms orgenetically modified bacteria such as polyhydroxyalkanoates, bacterialcellulose, etc. – Polymers produced byclassical chemical synthesis starting from renewable bio-based monomers such aspolylactic acid (PLA).Biomass pre-treatment is afundamental step for biomass utilization. It could also be a good alternativeto implement ILs or biological routes for cellulose recovery(Aligned and Nature).
Biopolymers like lignin cellulose and hemicullose have beenessentially extracted from various sources over the time. Recently waste biomass sources have been employed that have garnered a lot of interest inagricultural field. L. A. Panamgama and P. R.
U. S. K. Peramune , 2017 havesuccessfully extracted lignin from coir pith by employing three differentprotocols , i.e.
, alkaline extraction using 7.5% (w/v) NaOH, organosolvextraction using 85% (v/v) acetic acid/85% (v/v) formic acid in a 70:30 (v/v)mixture, and extraction using polyethylene glycol (PEG)(Panamgama, 2017). In 2016,K.
D. H. N. Kahawita, A.
M.P.B. Samarasekara have successfully conceptualized extractionof cellulosic fibres from sawmill wastelike saw dust, chips and shavings produce biodegradable, low cost, betterperformance polymer composite material for engineering applications(Tahri et al., 2016). Organosolv processes releasegood-quality cellulose, which can be further functionalized for otherapplications such as the generation of acetylated cellulignin. Lucie A.Pfaltzgra,et al 2012, have used foodwaste like agricultural waste from food production, food processing residues,mixed domestic waste produce e.
g. wheatstraw surpluses, spent co?ee grounds or citrus peels for extraction of highenergy chemicals(Tahri et al., 2016).Surinder Kaur and Gurpreet Singh Dhillon, 2013, have researched the bio-extractionof chitin from crustacean shell wastes(Kaur and Dhillon, 2015).In the past few years, numerous studies have already been reported thathave extracted chitin enzymatically. Teli and Sheikh , 2012 have reported aboutthe extraction of chitosan , a deacetylated form of chitin from shrimp shellwaste(Bajaj et al., 2011; Younes et al.
, 2014) . The shellfish has abundance of chitin and in this study, it wasextracted in its chitosan form for further applicability as antibacterialusage. Chitosan has also been found to have Antitumor, antioxidant andantimicrobial activities(Arthington-skaggs et al., 1999). Younes et al , 2014 have recovered chitin from enzymaticdeproteinization by crude proteases Bacillus mojavensis A21 and Balistes capriscus proteases and furthercharacterized by NMR(Bajaj et al.
, 2011). In a different study Bajaj et al, 2011 have studied theextraction and effect of deproteinationfrom Crangon crangon shells and deacetylation to chitosan. Deproteination wascarried out with an optimum shrimp shell:alkaline treatemnt of 1:4 from 30 °Cto 65 °C and at each temperature, incubation times were varied from 2 to 5 hfor maximal efficiency(Younes et al., 2014). Another study reported the usage of protease from Bacillus cereus SV1 for chitin and chitosan extraction from waste ofMetapenaeus monoceros shrimp(Manni et al., 2010)Zaku et al, 2011 have found arelatively unexplored source for extraction and characterization of chitin fromthe scales of a common Carp fish. Such methods have wider applicationswhen fabricated into deacetylated chitosan.
The rise in extraction of natural chitin isdriven by the fact that the chitin is acquired from a sustainable source,unlike petroleum derivatives(Zaku et al., 2011). 2. Bottlenecksof Biopolymers recoveryFor a sustainable development, thereare various unaddressed issues like usage of a cheap cost efficient rawmaterial and enhancing the productivity by a complete comprehension ofregulatory mechanism. Rather than alleviating the bottlenecks, some additionalefforts are also required like efficient enhancement of the process andtechnology that aids fermentation and downstream processing in industrialsetting(Puyolet al., 2017). Optimization of biopolymer production to make up for low biomass yieldswould address the grave issue of cost dependence on its yield relative to the amount of carbonsource used.
By overcoming these bottlenecks industrialecology, economic activity and environmental wellbeing are regulated with theexpansion of the next generation of materials, products, and processes.Inspite of the potential advantages from bio-based items, few obstacles couldhamper a progress to bio-based production. The carbon-based businesses of todayare entrenched and beneficial and to a greater extent depend on low-evaluatedfossil feedstocks(De Vuyst and Degeest, 1999). Presentation of creative preparing advances has added to vast degreesof profitability in petrochemical ventures. These vitality and substanceorganizations are vertically incorporated to coal, oil, and petroleum gas andhave financial connections to the extraction of these fossil assets.
3. Innovative/emergingBio-based Technologies for Biopolymers recovery 4. Significanceof Bio-based Technologies: Circular economical perspectiveIn broad terms, linear economy leads to deterioration of the environmentin the production process of converting natural resources into waste byunsustainable harvesting. On the otherhand, a circular economy works by drawing its resources from living nature, rendering no effect onthe environmental welfare. Instead, it re-establishes any loss made in the act,whilst safeguarding that lesser waste is spawn. The CircularEconomy represents an activity of a system as a whole, which is constantlyand consistently built-rebuilt in terms of its fitness. Bio based technologieshave not only opened a gateway for sustainable development but have abstractedthe implementation of circular economy. Byproducing natural biopolymers from high-end biomass waste, bio-based industriesin many ways hold the keys to a circular economy and a greener, moresustainable growth.
A cascade of various bio-based processes addressingcircular economy will pave sustainable avenues for the economic development. Therefore,production of biopolymer from waste biomass has significant potential tocontribute to the ever-growing economy. A bio-based process affects theeconomy in a way that the relationship between energy generated in the processand resources used makes the foundation of a green or sustainable economy.
Furthermore, their fabricated products will revolutionize the face ofbiopolymer development in turn enhancing the economic well-being globally. This change that is brought upon by in theuse of agricultural waste in the generation of bio-energy and other newproducts, is being driven by an abundance of research on emerging bio based processes,novel approaches, and innovative technological applications