There are very few methods, if any, that exist around the expression ofchildren’s opinions and voice within healthcare settings including bothclinical and research practice. Many children demand to be heard and would takecomfort in knowing they have a say within their care, which usually is verylimited within professional practice. Traditionally questionnaires, surveytools, and directed interviews are often centred around adults which creates alot of bias results and only reaches to a very small sample of society whichcan cause difficulties when generalising to the wider public (Driessnack,2005). Therefore, it is essential that no matter who a nurse is focusing theircare on, they must ensure that the patient has a say in their care and is involvedat all times to avoid seclusion and isolation.
There are many ways in which barriers can be overcome, for exampleit is important that when you are conversing with a patient, a nurse shouldselect the best location that will encourage effective communication. A nurseshould be positive and supportive, especially in times of need, when thepatient may require comfort. They must ensure they are respectful andempathetic to all circumstances, particularly when a patient may feelvulnerable. A nurse must be culturally and socially aware with regard to thosewho may live by a certain religion or those who may speak a different language,as well as ensuring that communication is clear, concise, and courteous toensure that the patient is provided with all knowledge of their care and areaware at all times of their treatment (Benbow, 2015-16, p.
20-25). To conclude communication is essential in nursing to create a strongerrelationship between nurses and patients, it helps to provide a clear understandingof patient care to those who are on a need to know basis and therefore helps toprovide the best possible care to the service user. It is vital for nurses toknow how to overcome barriers when conversing with a patient to furthermoreensure effective communication during their time in care. The 6Cs of nursing were first introduced to the public in March 2016 (NHSEngland, N.D.). Originally it launched in December 2012 and it was furtherreviewed in March 2014 to see how the values had integrated into the healthcare system. This allowed for the current standard of professionalism to bemaintained and modified (NHS England, Health Education England, N.
D.). Theywere put in place by England’s Chief Nursing Officer, Jane Cummings, (Holt, L.2001) to ensure that the best possible care is provided to all patients.
The6Cs are defined by the Royal College of Nursing as “standingfor the professional commitment to always deliver excellent care. Each value isequal, not one is more important than the other. They focus on putting theperson being cared for at the heart of the care they are given” (Royal Collegeof Nursing, 2015). This shows that each individual principle is as valued asthe other and they should all be applied within a healthcare setting by nursesto ensure an active quality of care. This essay will explore communication and aimsto assess the use of different communication methods within nursing. It will beginby outlining what it is, how we communicate and the different types ofcommunication nurses use within the work place. This will all be discussedbefore further reviewing the different barriers nurses may face whencommunicating with their patients. Communication is key when imparting information to another person.
Whentalking to another person, a nurse must ensure that they are being attentive,listening and responding in a way that will make the service user feelsignificant. Poor communication can cause damage to a nurse-patientrelationship, so it is vital that no matter how they are communicating, theyshould always make the individual feel paramount. There are many key aspectsthat a nurse should promote when conversing with a patient, for example it isimportant not only for the nurse to listen to their patient but to actuallyhear what they are saying. Nurses must ensure their patients feel that whatthey have to say is imperative by proving that they are listening andresponding to them. There are several ways in which nurses can enhance the waythey communicate with patients, for example, using non-verbal communicationeffectively through the use of body language and facial expressions, and usingclear speech in everyday language to ensure the patient understands what isgoing on with their care and treatment (Field&Smith, 2011, p.41-43). Communication can include anything from the use of language, observingactions, as well as listening to another person to express any thoughts orfeelings (Field&Smith, 2011, p.41-43).
It is important that no matter whatthe scenario, a nurse should always make the user feel valued. Nurses mustalways give their undivided attention to their patients during thecommunication process and should ensure that when they are communicatingverbally they speak in a clear and honest way that is respectful to the client(Royal College of Nursing, 2015). Patients may be able to sense when a nurse isfeeling impatient by listening to the tone of their voice; this may cause themto hold back any concerns they may have which can further cause apprehension tothe service user, therefore it is essential that when a nurse is communicatingwith their patient that they give them the time they need and stay calm to allow thepatient to open up when they have any questions, furthermore, this will help tobuild a stronger relationship between the patient and the nurse. Effectivecommunication is imperative when understanding a patient and their experiences;it entails different skills in conjunction with genuine intention from thenurse to recognise what the patient is troubled about. It is essential for anurse to convey to their patient that their worries are acceptable and to beconcerned is an appropriate response to the situation. There must not bejudgement towards the patient’s anxieties as it will lead to isolation withintheir care (Kourkouta & Papathanasiou, 2014).
Nurses communicate through what Shannon and Weaver (1949) describe asthe communication process, within this process there is a sender, the message,the channel and the receiver (Benbow, 2015-16, p.20-25). This pieceof work is still widely used across nursing as a starting point when trying tounderstand the communication process.
In this scenario, the sender is the nurseand the receiver is the patient. The nurse is responsible for initiating thecommunication with the patient, this could be anything from an individual, agroup or an organisation. The nurse is the initial source to the process and is”responsible for the success of the message” (Benbow, 2015-16,p.20-25). In order to add meaning to the message the nurse must encodeinformation into a message to represent ideas and concepts, this can be donethrough the use of symbols. Such symbols include languages, words or gestures.It is essential that the nurse utilises symbols that are suited to thepatient’s needs, this will allow a clear understanding of the message that isbeing conveyed. The channel is how the nurse decides to transmit the message tothe patient, this could be anything from verbal, non-verbal, tactile or writtencommunication methods.
Finally, the patient. After the nurse has chosen theappropriate channel the message will go through what is known as the decodingstage. Once the message has been received the information is sent to the brainfor interpretation in order to apply meaning to the message provided. “Allinterpretations by the receiver are influenced by their experiences, attitudes,knowledge, skills, perceptions and culture” (Sherman, 1994; Foulger, 2004) There is no perfect communication betweenanyone at any time, there will always be a barrier that intrudes withcommunication; the message that is being expressed may either not reach the receiver,be misunderstood or be misinterpreted (Benbow&Jordon, 2015-16, p.20-25).
Examplesof how this may occur includes negative messages via the use of body languagefor example slouching, drooping your head or avoiding eye contact whenconversing with an individual, these are all known as negative non-verbal barriers.If a nurse was to speak too quickly this may make a patient feel that theircare is being rushed and isn’t a priority, or if they speak too slowly, thismay give off the impression that the nurse is patronising the patient and thismay cause frustrations, these are otherwise known as linguistic barriers. Ifthere are language barriers between a nurse and a patient it may causedifficulty within their care, the nurse may be restricted to the care they canprovide as they may not understand their language, for example if a nurse spokea different language to the patient it could prevent them from understandingthe care they need to provide which could furthermore lead to mistreatment ofcare, this is commonly known as cultural barriers (Benbow, 2015-16,p.20-25). Non-Verbal communication is the process by which individuals portrayemotion through the use of body and voice (Field, 2011, p41-43).
Topractice in non-verbal communication, a nurse must focus on how they portraytheir message, for example through tone of voice, facial expressions and bodylanguage (Field, 2011, p41-43). For non-verbal communication it is common for patients to misinterpretbody language, for example if a nurse is slouching they may come across asuninterested and that could lead to the patient believing that the nurse isn’tbeing attentive, this could cause disruption to the patient’s care, thereforeleading to an unsatisfied service user. To prevent this from becoming an issue,when the nurse is communicating with their patient it is essential to not onlyexpress an interest verbally but to focus on their non-verbal skills such assitting up and being alert to show enthusiasm to the conversation.