This among the type of session and type

This
study focuses on how the Self-Reported drug use scores of 142 prolific drug
offenders and other priority offender status who tested positive for heroin or
cocaine during their arrest, is dependent on the type of session and type of
therapy provided to them. Participants were randomly allocated into the
different levels of type of session that included group and individual, and
type of therapy that included CBT and MI, 12-Step Programme and Standard Care
or Treatment as Usual. The participants were asked to fill in log books to
record the scores and were required to attend their sessions for a period of 12
months. A two-tailed hypothesis was conducted. The null hypothesis stated that,
there will not be a significant difference in Self-Reported drug use scores
among the 3 different drug treatment groups. The experimental hypothesis stated
that there will be a difference in the self-reported drug use scores between
the three types of treatments (CBT with MI, 12 Step Programme and Standard
Care). The study also examined whether there is a significant interaction
effect among the type of session and type of therapy. After computing the
results the null hypothesis was rejected and a significant interaction effect
was found between the type of therapy and type of session.The
two drugs that are generally identified with these crime-spree situations are cocaine
or crack and opium that consist of heroin or morphine (LeBoutillier & Love, 2010).
29% of drug users use cocaine, which is the third most widely used
illegal drug in the United Kingdom (Mann, 2014). Among hard drugs the general
perception of Britons is that they consider heroin to be the most harmful to health
followed by crack, crystal meth and cocaine. Amid heroin users, crime related
activity levels are high with an estimate of the social cost of drug-related
crime being between £65,000-100,000 per user entailing a cumulative cost amidst
all heroin users in the England and Wales to be in the range of £3.5 to 10.5
billion (Bryan, Bono, & Pudney, 2013). Research reveals that about
three-quarters of acquisitive crime among heroin users is attributable to drug
use, but essentially no violent crime (Bryan, Bono, & Pudney, 2013). It was
reported that the amount of property crime was high in heroin users but there
was no compelling indication of any violent crimes being committed by these
users. (Bryan, Bono, & Pudney, 2013). However, this study does not take
into account the level of acquisitive crime that would have been committed by
these drug users or suppliers if they had not been on drugs and hence that is
an unknown.  Most
Britons aged 16-24 believe that high levels of street crime are directly or
indirectly related to the use to drugs, linking 50% of all street crimes to
drugs, and that decriminalisation of these would result in lesser crime rates
(Mann, 2014). However, reports suggest that a huge mass (95%) of the drug users
denied committing a crime to get these drugs. In
the year 2009, self-reported drug use displayed that cannabis was the most
frequently used drug (8.9%), after which there was cocaine (2.4%), ecstasy
(1.6%), amphetamine (1.3%), amyl nitrate (1.2%), and hallucinogens (1.1%) (LeBoutillier & Love, 2010).
 Cognitive
Behavioural Therapy or CBT is a form of therapy that targets an individual’s
attitude and thought process to develop a pattern which helps to cope with the
distress. The change in cognition helps to reduce symptoms and is generally a
short-term solution but improved cognitive functioning is a long-term aspect to
this method of therapy (Gaudiano, 2008).  Motivational Interviewing or MI is the form of
therapy where the client is motivated by the counsellor who supports them and
helps them reflect up on their behaviour. CBT and MI share some common aspects
like empathy and collaboration between the client and counsellor. MI can be applied
together with CBT, which is theory based, to make it more effective (Carter,
2011).  The
12 Step Programme is a type of therapy where the individuals at first recognize
that there is a problem and try to address the issue by taking part in 12 steps
or activities and following general guidelines during the recovery process (Donovan, Ingalsbe, Benbow, & Daley, 2013). Findings
report that individuals who attend the meetings routinely have higher rates of
continence as compared to those do not attend the meetings often.  The
RAPt (Rehabilitation of Addicted Prisoners Trust) offers a paradigm of
abstinence based treatment which has been established from the 12 Step
programme in nine prisons in the United Kingdom. Graduates from the RAPt have
shown significant and constant minimization of drug use and offences and their
rate of reconviction was also lower that the predicted rate (McSweeney, Turnbull, & Hough, 2008).
 In
a study conducted by Maude-Griffin et al., (1998) to check whether CBT was more
effective than the 12 Step facilitation for reducing the amount of cocaine
abuse in adults, participants were randomly allocated to CBT or the 12 Step
facilitation. They received one individual counselling session and three group
therapy sessions for a total of 12 weeks. Abstinence was established as sobriety
from the use of cocaine for 30 days and a drug free urine sample. The
participants of this study on an average, took part in 5 out of 12 individual
therapy sessions and 14 out of 36 group sessions, which shows that client
effort is required even in accord to the most effective treatment method
(Palinkas, 1999). The results showed that there were more participants who
attained four weeks of abstinence from the CBT type of treatment as compared to
those who took part in the 12 Step facilitation. It was also found that at each
point of the assessment, participants who took CBT were more abstinent as
opposed to those who underwent the 12 Step facilitation (Maude-Griffin et al.,
1998). Another
study conducted by Crits-Christoph et al., 1999, included patients who were
cocaine dependent. The participants were randomly designated into four
categories individual drug counselling plus group drug counselling, group drug
counselling plus cognitive therapy, group drug counselling plus
support-expressive therapy or just group drug counselling. Reports were taken
during treatment every month and at 9 and 12 months after baseline. The results
reported that the most effective treatment on the Addiction Severity Index-Drug
Use Composite score was individual drug counselling plus group drug counselling
(Crits-Christoph, Siqueland, &
Blaine, 1999). This shows that the combination of individual and group setting administers
effective reduction in cocaine users.  These
reports suggest that there is a gap in research conducted regarding group vs
individual therapy sessions among cocaine and heroin users.  

Thus,
the present study aims to compare the outcome of Self-Reported drug usage
scores among participants taking cocaine and heroin in the group as well as
individual type of session. It also looks at the types of treatments like Cognitive
Behavioural Therapy (CBT) with Motivational Interviewing (MI), 12 Step
Programme and Standard Care or Treatment as Usual and aims to establish which
is more effective among these drug users. It is also examined whether there is
a significant interaction effect among the type of session and type of therapy.
The null hypothesis states that there will not be a significant difference in
Self-Reported drug use scores among the 3 different drug treatment groups. The
experimental hypothesis states that there will be a difference in the
self-reported drug use scores between the three types of treatments (CBT with
MI, 12 Step Programme and Standard Care).  

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