This paperreviews the speech of Mayor Yuukou Endo, who reported the current situation invillage of Kawauchi, Fukushima prefecture in Japan. The speaker described thecurrent situation which occur after disaster, what kind of measures to supportthe population to move from village to other places to live, shelters for thebeginning and then opening new opportunities for them took place at that time.Moreover, there a lot of work done toimprove the infrastructure of the village.
It was impressive to know, that allissues had been solved instantly like evacuation of the people, food, medicaland psychological help had been provided in time. This is a positive andpleasant part of the discussion, giving the picture of that how the localauthority takes care of the people who live in that area. However thereis sad side of the this situation which is caused by these disasters: impact ofthe nuclear accident like fear of radiation, evacuating life, concerning ofhealth and uncertainty in the future, impatience for despair, death caused bydisaster, loss of employment, discontinuation of agriculture, forestry, andlivestock.Now allmeasures for liquidation of consequences after disaster had been implemented,and turn cones to that time of returning people home, and this returningoperation is more difficult than evacuating. It is not something to berestricted or limited, because Kawauchi Village takes measures to get backadministrative functions and arrange the environment for returnees on the frontline.
Anyway the “Declaration of returning the viilage” was accepted in January31, 2012. And it was proposed for residents who are ready return home and forthose who are not, they have still time to wait and see how everything willwork.It is lessonto learn how local authority of this village and prefecture work onreconstruction; first thing that had considered is:- Choice.Respect both resident’s choice and each decision, returning or leaving thevillage;- Trust.Rebuild trust between residents and the village administration;- Challenge.
In terms of administrative policies, start with things they could do bythemselves. Current situation in village Kawauchi, accordingto the information presenter delivered is quite stable, all measures to controlradiation had been done, they prepared 10 temporary storage, many businesseshave launched their businesses, existing companies and factories are promotingemployment, some companies are desiring to expand their businesses at theindustrial park. Though they force some problems like: occupation mismatch,salary system, difficulty of securing workforce. Health management, have continuedits job in an ordinary scenario, but still forces some problems withhospitalization, emergency transport, core medical hospital system, and toacquire proper knowledge of radiation.Social welfare councils make great job by visiting requiring special assists,hosting social meetings for the elderly, loaning wheelchair accessible vehicle,starting excursion-support service, consign meal services, and offering ride tovarious events.
Education system still need to solve some problems with thatstudent cannot practice club activities as a team, difficulty in going On to highschool, there is a gap between urban areas and the village, children are indistrust, and now they should think about how to convey local identities.Although,local authority provide support by:· Organizingnursery school;· Providingfree tuition at Kawauchi Kogakujuku;· Organizingafter school care program;· Handson learning (trip to Atlanta, summer camp in Hokkaido, Nagasaki CityReconstruction Kids Class);· Commutesubsidy;· Providingfree medical treatment.Resumingagriculture, forestry and livestock industry, it some up with some problemswhich are need to be examined: · Tosecure bearers;· Harmfulrumors which is tend to be declined of motivation for farming;· Failureof resource circulation;· Developmentof spontaneously established industry.Andlast issue that was discussed during the presentation is infrastructure: it issays about strong management of local authority and cohesion in the calamity ofordinary people.
Infrastructure of Kawauchi village increased by openingcommercial facilities. They strengthen the situation in disaster public housingincreasing its number up to 25. Local state support program on building privateappartments, opening Kawauchi hot springs, and fixed funeral hall. Moreover,new bus routes were opened, as well as indoor swimming pools, special nursinghomes.
They constructed roads together with National Govermnet, which is alsovery impressive point.Butstill Mayor mentioned about major projects that should be done in 2017, amongthem:· Businessresumption, promotion to return;· Houseconstruction subsidy;· Installingsecurity cameras;· Winemaking subsidy;· Developingindustrial park;· Boilerconstruction of Kawauchi hot spring;· Sourceof hot spring investigation;· Singleparent support;· Ricewarehouse paving;· Elementaryand junior high integrated education, improving environment;· Freenursery schools.That’s not full range of plans that should beimplemented by the government. Nowexamining the scale of the disaster, I believe Fukushima disaster was the mostsignificant nuclear incident since the 1986 year Chernobyl disaster.
Thoughthere have been no fatalities linked to radiation due to the accident.NuclearEnergy Institute (2015) give some evidence and compared these two disasters;key facts is following:Both the 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear energy facility in Japan and the Chernobyl accident in the former Soviet Union in 1986 required countermeasures to protect the public. This fact netted both accidents the highest rating on the International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES). However, the accidents were starkly different in their cause, the governments’ response and health effects. The accident at Fukushima occurred after a series of tsunami waves struck the facility and disabled systems needed to cool the nuclear fuel. The accident at Chernobyl stemmed from a flawed reactor design and human error.
It released about 10 times the radiation that was released after the Fukushima accident.The Japanese government moved rapidly to implement protective measures, evacuating people and halting food shipments from the area. The government also distributed potassium iodide to residents near the facility to prevent their thyroid glands from absorbing radiation. These actions limited any adverse health effects from the accident.
Authorities in the former Soviet Union were slow to take action to protect the supply of food and milk, which led to a spike in thyroid cancers among children and adolescents from consuming contaminated foodstuffs.No deaths from radiation exposure have been attributed to the accident in Japan. Separate studies published in 2013 by the United Nations (UN) and the World Health Organization concluded that health risks from radiation released during the Fukushima accident are minimal, even for those “most affected,” and there are essentially no health effects outside Japan. At Chernobyl, 28 highly exposed workers died within four months of the accident. Experts say there is “some evidence” of an increased risk of leukemia and cataracts among workers who received higher doses when engaged in recovery efforts.
Long-term health monitoring of these workers is ongoing. As of 2005, about 15 children had died from thyroid cancer. Improved monitoring has been implemented to help ensure that thyroid cancer is detected early, when it is highly treatable. However, countermeasures taken over the next few years after the accident kept radiation doses relatively low. The resulting doses “should not lead to substantial health effects in the general population,” according to a 2011 report from the United Nations.