Topics inComputer ScienceGestureRecognition:Gesturerecognition is, what we see today in smartphones, the technology that allowsusers to issue commands using their hand movements. It is used for smartphones’extra features, gaming, and sign language interpretation.According toan academic article from September 2017 by KSII Transactions on Internet andInformation Systems, a gesture recognition system is being developed based onorientation, linear extrapolation and the longest common subsequence algorithm.Gesturerecognition systems uses motion and skin color, measured by a 3-framedifference and the skin color elliptic boundary model, to distinguish a hand inconvoluted environment. The 3-frame reference involves using a video camera todetect motion by turning 3 consecutive frames into a grayscale intensity imageswhere the skin-color elliptic boundary model differentiates the hand from otherobjects and gauges the distance and velocity of the hand.Manyalgorithms for the recognition process are based on the algorithm, called thelongest common subsequence. The longest common subsequence is an algorithmbased on recursion (which we covered in the course) which goes through asequence of data and derives a subsequence, and repeats said process. Thisalgorithm is used to compare the inputted hand gestures performed and analyzewhich is the most probable and applicable gesture pattern on the alreadypre-existing template.
In theexplored article, a suggestion for improvement in the gesture recognitionsystem is considering the obstruction or overlapping of hands, the orientation ofthe hands and their velocity. From this information, one might be able tocreate an algorithm to predict the linear motion of the hand so that thetechnology can track the hands. Yuan, Min,et al. “A Dynamic Hand Gesture Recognition System IncorporatingOrientation-based Linear Extrapolation Predictor and Velocity-assisted LongestCommon Subsequence Algorithm.” KSII Transactions on Internet andInformation Systems, vol. 11, no. 9, 2017, p.
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Accessed 13 Jan. 2018. Data Mining:Data miningis a computer science theoretical field where patterns are sought after inlarge datasets.
I found an article discussing how could one use data mining ina non-linear dataset. The problem lies within the inputs and the subsets of thedataset, as they grow exponentially. Thus, it makes it more difficult to setparameters and transformations that will cover the predicted data.
Assuming enoughinformation and subsets are given to create the correct parameters, one woulduse a forward selection method or a backward elimination technique. The forwardselection method goes through each subset and adds the ones with significant effectson the results as deemed by the analyst’s (of said data) criteria ofsignificance as predictors. While the backwards technique starts with all thepredictors and disposes of the subsets that would not change the results of thedependent variable significantly.Moreover,there is a method of the correct subsets, called Least Angle Regression. Thismethod is based on the front method mentioned previously.
In this method, the coefficientsof the independent or inputted values are to be zero. First predictor changes its coefficient toits least square value, and so is done to the rest of the subsets, where if onesubset matches the first, they are added to the set.For non-lineartransformations, a recursive Newton algorithm is incorporated, as well as amachine learning method, called Artificial Neural Networks. Tavallali,Peyman, et al. “A non-linear data mining parameter selection algorithm forcontinuous variables.” PLoS ONE, vol. 12, no. 11, 2017, p.
com/apps/doc/A514360094/AONE?u=ko_k12hs_d22&sid=AONE&xid=c72eb395.Accessed 13 Jan. 2018. Bioinformatics:In themedical field, there are large datasets of information, ontologies, and medicalterms to be sorted, arranged and cross referenced. The branch of computer sciencethat creates programs to make sense of biological data is called bioinformatics,and intersects with the medical field. So, in the bioinformatics, access to thevast scientific information that comes in all its different forms is crucialfor studies, research and breakthroughs.
At theBioMed Central Ltd., the Research Centre is working on a web-based platform,called PIBAS FedSPARQL where researchers can access information. Theyimplemented a text mining algorithm to allow users to query a given data item,but to do this, they set up predefined SPARQL endpoints holding different typesof datasets, where similar data items would be found in the SPARQL endpoints. Cross-referencingdata items and searching for similar ones is one of the issues faced by thosein bioinformatics. In FedSPARQL, one way to find similarity is by calculatingthe shortest distance between two words (concepts) in a taxonomy of concepts. In additionto this, since science is a progressing field and research is done daily, newinformation would be added to the database. Thus, there is a predefined templatefor users to add their datasets with their finding.
The issue with this wouldbe that the small laboratories would not be contributed or harder to regulate. This researchsignificantly is similar to the course material we covered in ICS4U, as welearned how handle datasets and manipulate them, as well as search informationand sort according to categories, so do people who work in bioinformatics. Djokic-Petrovic,Marija, et al. “PIBAS FedSPARQL: a web-based platform for integration andexploration of bioinformatics datasets.” Journal of Biomedical Semantics,vol. 8, no.
Suppl 1, 2017. Academic OneFile,http://link.galegroup.com/apps/doc/A507109708/AONE?u=ko_k12hs_d22&sid=AONE&xid=f670a1f6.Accessed 13 Jan.
2018. ComputerEthics:Entering and breaking through the firewalls of a computer without warrant is anethical dilemma to some. One of the reasons can be the intentions behind theirhacking into a system is purely out of curiosity or a thirst of knowledge. Theymay not corrupt or copy files, but simply look at them. That can be considereda “victimless” crime, as no one was hurt in the process.
Moreover, some mayargue that not all information stored in a computer is private or sensitive informationin need of protection. Nevertheless, despite the lack of physical harm, abreach of privacy had occurred, similar to breaking and entering into a house.In addition to this, the simple exposure of information may go against theconfidentiality of some companies.However,there are university professors who assign their students the task of hackinginto the university’s system, but is this seen as a breach of privacy, as theinformation is not clearly stated to which individual it belongs to. As well,the perpetrators had permission from a figure of authority, but is it thecorrect figure of authority.https://www.
aitp.org/blog/aitp-blog/2017/07/04/ethical-problems-in-computing/Computer programmer’sethic:According tothe Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, there are 8 differentmoral principles for software engineers to comply with, some of which are:1. Public – softwareengineers should act and take into consideration of desires of the public.Software engineers should not false advertise their product, much lessincorporate insensitive/offensive material into their programs. Moreover, creatorsshould give fair warnings upon the use of their product, for instance medicalreasons.2. Client and Employer– they should act in accordance of the client’s and the public’s interestSoftware engineers must not accept payments from competitive companies tosabotage their product. They must report on their progress and express their truthfulopinion to their clients in terms of budget, schedule, or the rate of successof the project.
3. Product-Sodtware engineers must produce high-quality work The productshould not be a copied software, only original work. They must only make the productor accept the responsibility to make it if they are capable of performing thetask. They must persevere to meet all the requirements and specifications setby the client in regards to the projects.
4. Profession –they should act in a respectful manner to maintain the reputation of the field.Moreover, they must ensure to never place their interests above their clients’ orthe public.A code likethis needs to exist, as computers introduced a whole new plane of moral dilemmasand uncertainties.
Crimes can now be committed in way never done before. Inorder to protect human values, one needs to establish a code for computerprogrammers to provide clarification.EnvironmentInitiatives: