Tourism in India is instrumental for employment and economic growth. Itis the largest service sector industry.
Growth in economy has increased the disposableincome, which as created better opportunities for travel. India offers numeroustravel opportunities consisting of forests, hills, rivers and mountains. Accordingto Maurice Jane (2002) India is a perfect blend of historical, traditional andcultural significance. It comprises of coastal areas as well as hill top sceniclocations.
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Thus has a vast potential for tourism growth and is successful incatering to the needs of tourists with diversified interests. The country isable to attract foreign tourist and also a high amount of Foreign DirectInvestment (FDI). India is rich in diversity and believes in “AtithiDevo Bhavah”. The tourism ministry as undertook a series of promotionalactivities in tourist generating markets. The five-year plans with the mainfocus laid on developing Indian Tourism. The roles of the government central, state andlocal bodies are essential in planning, promoting and encouraging sustainabletourism schemes.
The reason behind tremendous growth is due to the highspending foreign tourists, the middle class population and the governmentcampaign of Incredible India. The drivers of tourism in India are domestic andinternational growth drivers. Thedomestic drivers are the lifestyles of middle class, leading to purchasingpower and better connectivity while the international drivers are value formoney at the. The Incredible India is s lucrative brand for governmentinitiatives and policies that help increase inbound tourism. Amajor part of the country’s population falls under a young age group of 18-55and are more open to new destinations.
Diverse product offerings oftourism industry are driving differentsections of the society into the industry. The availability of credits andeasy financing has enhanced the growth. (Ajay & Reena , 2007;Malya & Anindya, 2013). The recovery from various global financial criseshas led to the formation of new markets; this has led to diversification oftourism markets. According to UNWTO in 2012 tourism hit the highest record ofall time. According to Karin and Weber (2001) travelling for adventure hasincreased drastically to the region of America and Europe, also arrival ofadventure tourists to India from these countries has also increased. Thehighest increase in spending was from South American adventure travelers which85% for hard adventure and 25% for soft adventure travel per year. Manytourists are no longer satisfied by sightseeing or visiting places or shopping.
They are in search for activities that create unique experiences.According to Andrea Moretti (2016) Adventure Tourism means travellingfor an exciting or an unusual experience that usually involves a degree of dangerand risk. While performing adventure activities the adventurists faces high orlow challenges. The wilderness, exotic and unusual environment are the main factorsof this segment. The inner motivation of adventurist determines in choosing thesuitable activity. In this form of tourism the tourists accept the limitedinfrastructure and the underdevelopment of the area as the main focus is laidon indulging in the activity.
In spite of the presence of various threats thatare associated the tourists willingly experience adventurous activities. (Buckley R. , 2010) The adventure tourism or activities could be divided into two parts:Hard Adventure and Soft Adventure. The hard adventure involves activities withphysical risks, high risk activities and requires sufficient training andexpertise. While the latter includesactivities that are safer and do not require any training or guidance fromexperts (Paul and Williams, 2007; Koder, 2005).
The type of activity chosendepends on the motivation and interests of the adventurist. These includecamping, nature walks, wildlife visit horseback riding or volunteeropportunities. Travelling for adventure activities comprises for more than onefifth of tourism revenue In adventure tourism small businesses have become dominant and mostly suchbusinesses are unprofessional since bigger businesses are less in this field.There is lack of a proper professional management system that ensures thesafety and caters to the increasing demand of adventurists (Cluotier, 2003). In this kind of tourism the locals can take advantage and create benefits.At the international level leading countries have developed infrastructure andregulations for performing activities.
India has various growth opportunitiesin this sector due to the presence of several touristic resources like vastcoastlines, unique land formations, landscapes, wildlife, mountains etc. The Indian government is providing assistanceto various states like Goa, Kashmir, Karnataka, Auli, Manali, and Kerala forthe development of adventure activities.According to Ceciland Krohn (2014) in order to exploitthe resources, research has been conducted to understand the quality of tourismproducts and its marketing followed. Since the risk associated with tourism is intangiblein nature, it is necessary to evaluate the destination in order to attracttourists. But this scenario works completely different in the sub sector oftourism known as adventure tourism.
The risk perceived acts as an attraction totourists and severs as a means for operators to formulate better packages. Itclearly plays a role in decision-making. The adventure tourism is presently at the stage ofdevelopment in Karnataka and is one of the fastest growing segments in tourismindustry. Development of activities could increase the arrivals and expand thebusiness opportunities. The present study examines the potentials of adventuretourism and focuses on the problems that arise in the development of thistourism.
Additionally the study extends to give suggestions and recommendationsin order to develop adventure tourism and fully utilize the resources that arepresent in the state of Karnataka. The state of Karnataka offers activitiesthat are diversified and matches to its landscape that’s on land, the skyabove, on top of the hills or even the life below like underwater. Adventuristscan cater to their hunger for adventure by indulging in skydiving there isopportunities for soft adventure like cycling from the Nilgiri mountains and itranges to spotting animals in the national parks of the state. The vastcoastline supports water sports activities as well. Thus there are no limitedoptions available in the state Karnataka. Karnataka caters to all kinds of tourists, ranging from nature loversto those fond of outdoor activities.
It provides trekking routes in the Ghat sectionsand is home to various wildlife sanctuaries. Rock climbing in Yana and Ramnagarare very popular. Activities liketrekking, parasailing and hand gliding is provided in Nandi Hills. The wildlifesanctuaries offer jeep safaris and the cruise down a river helps in observingrich diversity of the animals and bird life. There are popular soft adventureactivities in the Bhadra and Kabini region.
Water sport activities like raftingare available in the regions of Coorg and Dandeli. So the adventurerecreationists have wide range of choices. The resorts located in pristineregions of Karnataka provide nature walks or trails to the nearby areas, wherethe naturist takes tourists for a walk of plantations or even jungles. Coraclerides are popular in Nagarhole and Dandeli. These resorts are often named asadventure lodges or resorts.
Need forthe StudyIn thissegment of adventure tourism the main challenge is to understand the concept ofperceived risk and the behavioral intentions. Adventure activities are often associated with uncertainty and risks. Byunderstanding the tourists behavior it becomes easier to understand theirpurpose or need for travel.
By knowing the reason behind choosing Karnataka asa potential destination it becomes easier for the operators, government and thehost community to cater to the tourists in a better way at the destination. The research onadventure tourism helps to exploit the money making potential that is availablein tourism industry. Data gathered on behavioral intentions includes the likesand dislikes helps to create more appealing venues for activities andencourages tourists to participate. Thestudy would help in investigating the problems and situations that may arise in future.
It will suggest ideasand generate scope for further research. The research on adventure tourismsector is conducted to focus on problems that are closely related to thisspecific sector and find out appropriate solutions through the study. Inadventure tourism not everything is positive. The study will help in identifying the impacts that are taking place dueto the presence of adventure activities in Karnataka.
Since the activities areusually conducted in natural environments there are greater chances foraffecting the surroundings and life of the local or host community. This studywill act as a guide for the ecological problems. Understanding the negativeaspects will help in producing knowledge about the changes that has to beensured. The study of both soft and hard adventure will act as a guide forunderstanding the activities that are provided in Karnataka and the level ofservices that is offered.
Thus in today’s scenarioevery destination is trying to establish there tourism image to generate moreopportunities; when compared to other states Karnataka is slow in reaching itsgoal. Statementof the ProblemValue andSatisfaction with trends: Current issues in Adventure Tourism in Karnataka To discover the various trends inactivities and behavior of adventure tourists who are visiting Karnataka. Tounderstand the driving trends and the latest developments in the adventure tourismsector of the state. Trends will help to understand the reason behind undertakingan activity or choosing a particular destination.
This might be due to theenvironmental appeal of the destination or the risk factors associated with theactivity. Behavioral intentions can beunderstood by analyzing the psychographics, socio demographics of adventuretravelers. It is necessary to get insight about the motivations of theadventure traveller since he is an asset to the tourism industry.
The study isessential to understand the trip behaviors of adventurists and theirimplications on the travel market. The perception on adventuretourism or activities in Karnataka varies from each tourist. For a few it maybe viewed as one of the most unique destination while on the other handtourists may perceive this region as less appealing. This study will help inunderstanding the current scenario and issues that are prevailing in thissegment of tourism. Satisfaction is oneof the important variables of tourism industry.
Satisfaction levels of touristsdetermine the success of a particular destination. Word of mouth spreads fasterthan any promotional activity. To understand the issues prevalent in adventuretourism it is necessary to get information about the participants. Analyzing the current scenarios will helpin suggesting measures that will prevent and improve the quality of both theadventure destination and tourist experience. Therefore there is a need for the above-mentioned study. Objectivesof the Study1. Toanalyze satisfaction, behavioral intentions in the context of adventure tourismin Karnataka.
?2. Toidentify current issues and impacts of adventure destinations and also tosuggest measures to overcome challenges. ?Thesuccess of any new trends in adventure tourism can be measured through thesatisfaction of adventure travellers. Development of a tourist destination isdependent on tourist satisfaction and they are inseparable.
The customer satisfaction helps in extending customerstay and spending. Satisfaction is essential to develop a strong relationshipbetween tourists and service providers.Theaim of the study is to understand the attitude and behavior of adventurerecreationalists.
It is essential to understand the behavior patterns; thiswill help in understanding their actions. This includes the methods adopted bythe tourist for choosing a destination, activity, perceptions of safety andrisk, motivational factors and interests. Adventure tourism involves risk anduncertainties but this will help in determining psychological and behavioralpatterns (Tseng, 2007).The currentissues relate to those prevailing with the tourists and at the destination.This objective will further help in understanding the limitations of this studyand the scope for further research in this area. Thisresearch will examine the problems and significant prospects of tourism sectorin Karnataka and find out the key barriers of development of adventure tourism.It is very important for the state to identify the reasons that hinder thegrowth of adventure tourism sector since this segment is very competitive.