TRANSPORTATION in road crash every year globally which

TRANSPORTATION SAFETY

HARSHIL H SHAH

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U10178791

HOMEWORK-1

To find two
treatments to improve road safety (reduce the likelihood of traffic crashes or
their severity)

According to association for safe international road
travel 1.35 million people die in road crash every year globally which is 3300
death a day. In United States more than 35,000 die in road crash and in
addition 2.35 million people are injured or disabled. The main focus here is
children’s who are under the age of 15 die more than 1600 every year. So, the
road crashes cost United States nearly $240 billion per year that is $835 per
person and that is a way too costly. Unless action is taken road traffic
injuries or deaths to become fifth leading cause of deaths by 2030 in the
world. So, for that there are so many techniques which are already applied or
about to apply or should be apply in United States to reduce the road crashes
and makes roads safer. There are two main techniques which I think is important
and those are (1) Improve the road safety with High Friction Surface
Treatment(HFST).  HFSTs
significantly increases the pavement friction or “traction” on roadways helping
motorists maintain better control of their vehicles in both wet and dry driving
conditions. Or We can just change the mode of transportation by (2) using an
automotive vehicle which also helps reducing the road crashes.

 

1)      Improve the road safety with High Friction Surface
Treatment(HFST)

High Friction Surface Treatment
(HFST) is a cost-effective approach to address areas on roadways, such as
horizontal curves, intersections or bridges, that demand higher friction in
order to reduce vehicle skidding and save lives. The application process
requires broadcasting the aggregate either by hand or mechanical method to the
pavement surface using a polymer binder. Studies have shown that improving the
friction by using HFST reduces crashes by 50-100%. Calcined bauxite is the
aggregate of choice for HFST because of its abrasive qualities, hardness, and
ability to hold frictional resistance over time. They are made up of a
long lasting or durable, polish-resistant aggregates that is applied and bonded
to the roads using strong polymer resin binder.

Benefits of High Friction Surface
Treatment:

 

Ø 
Reduce crashes, injuries, and deaths – Almost all the States that have
performed testing on high-crash areas treated with HFSTs report significant
reductions in crashes involving injuries or fatalities.

Ø 
Have very little to no impact environmentally
or on traffic –  Installing HFSTs takes a relatively short amount of
time and they have very limited environmental impacts – especially when
compared to road realignments.

Ø 
Customizable for different locations – The
components used in HFSTs can be adjusted for different uses and in areas with
severe climates.

Ø 
produce measurable results – Several
states have produced very favorable results when using HFSTs on their roadways.
One significant study from Kentucky showed that the number of crashes
experienced on 26 different horizontal curves was reduced from an average of
6.2 to 1.9 accidents per year.

Ø 
Very long-lasting and durable – The
expected lifecycle of HFSTs is about more than ten years, which shows that they
are a long-term and durable solution.

Ø 
Less expensive than other improvements – It
is notably less expensive to use HFSTs to increase the safety of roadways than
to have to realign or otherwise reconfigure them to prevent crashes.

Ø 
Drivers will notice that there is an increase in
the amount of “grip” that they feel when moving from traditional asphalt onto
roadways that are covered with a high friction surface treatment. Additionally,
HFSTs are an improvement over traditional surfaces because the high friction
materials are resistant to polishing and abrasion, further reducing the chances
of skidding and hydroplaning.

Ø 
High friction surface treatments are an
innovation that can reduce accidents and save lives.

Applications:

High friction surface treatments are used in areas that have
higher numbers of crashes, including:

Ø 
Horizontal curves

Ø 
Intersections and ramps

Ø 
Bridge decks

Ø 
Sections at steep grades

Ø 
School zones

Ø 
Bus and bike lanes

 

2)     
Reduce
crash by using an Automotive Vehicles:

 

An automotive vehicle that can guide itself
without human conduction. This kind of vehicle has become a concrete reality and may pave the way
for future systems where computers take over the art of driving. An automotive car is also known as a
driverless car, robot car, self-driving car or autonomous vehicle. Mostly people consider that the autonomous
vehicles are a significant part of the future of the automobile industry. As
the technology advances to develop in the field of autonomous vehicles, it
would be necessary for governments to address the potential impacts of these
vehicles on the road.

Every year, the states considering legislation related
to autonomous vehicles are increasing gradually. For example- 21
states—Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia,
Illinois, Louisiana, Michigan, New York, Nevada, North Carolina, North Dakota,
Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia and Vermont—and
Washington D.C. have already passed the legislation related to autonomous
vehicles.

 

Benefits of an
automotive vehicles:

Ø 
Safer transportation than any other cars

Ø 
 self-driving cars could reduce vehicle-
related fatalities. Because machines make fewer mistakes than humans.

Ø 
It is fully runs on software. So, there are very
less chances of car crashes.

 

As we can see more than a half of our worlds
population believes that autonomous vehicles are safe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ø 
https://greatlakesminerals.com/2017/10/improve-road-safety-with-high-friction-surface-treatment/

 

 

Ø 
http://asirt.org/initiatives/informing-road-users/road-safety-facts/road-crash-statistics

 

Ø 
https://www.google.com/search?q=statistics+for+autonomous+cars+in+florida=1C1CHZL_enUS748US748=lnms=isch=X=0ahUKEwjXz7n_lP_YAhXB61MKHd0nAX0Q_AUIDSgE=1920=900#imgdii=e2Z1E2voBMFgXM:=-PFqHsSQoNf3qM:

 

 

Ø 
https://www.google.com/search?q=high+friction+surface+treatment=isch=rimg:CUYSdT0dpK7DIjht9iPOpJDvrmalC5HHFO4JkIob9iG832eyceR0GzGf4wcNgZ9TxpTGZthxc2peXEaOocTAsFLByyoSCW32I86kkO-uETg6the3GWavKhIJZqULkccU7gkRGsIQp4Yx2SkqEgmQihv2IbzfZxGgZ9fZgQQkCSoSCbJx5HQbMZ_1jEZUII3Sd45AtKhIJBw2Bn1PGlMYROHdEDO2g9jYqEglm2HFzal5cRhFcr1khW2fOpSoSCY6hxMCwUsHLEYWMMNBiAsqu=u=X=0ahUKEwjjkLHQhv_YAhWGmeAKHdrMAzkQ9C8IHw=1920=900=1#imgdii=_2Ij3P15-AHYxM:=e3WMHg9gN8jOwM:

 

Ø 
autonomous vehicles, self-driving
vehicles enacted legislation (2017, 23rd October), Washington, D.C,
retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/transportation/autonomous-vehicles-self-driving-vehicles-enacted-legislation.aspx

 

Ø  https://greatlakesminerals.com/applications/high-friction-surface-treatment/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 TRANSPORTATION SAFETY

HARSHIL H SHAH

U10178791

HOMEWORK-1

To find two
treatments to improve road safety (reduce the likelihood of traffic crashes or
their severity)

According to association for safe international road
travel 1.35 million people die in road crash every year globally which is 3300
death a day. In United States more than 35,000 die in road crash and in
addition 2.35 million people are injured or disabled. The main focus here is
children’s who are under the age of 15 die more than 1600 every year. So, the
road crashes cost United States nearly $240 billion per year that is $835 per
person and that is a way too costly. Unless action is taken road traffic
injuries or deaths to become fifth leading cause of deaths by 2030 in the
world. So, for that there are so many techniques which are already applied or
about to apply or should be apply in United States to reduce the road crashes
and makes roads safer. There are two main techniques which I think is important
and those are (1) Improve the road safety with High Friction Surface
Treatment(HFST).  HFSTs
significantly increases the pavement friction or “traction” on roadways helping
motorists maintain better control of their vehicles in both wet and dry driving
conditions. Or We can just change the mode of transportation by (2) using an
automotive vehicle which also helps reducing the road crashes.

 

1)      Improve the road safety with High Friction Surface
Treatment(HFST)

High Friction Surface Treatment
(HFST) is a cost-effective approach to address areas on roadways, such as
horizontal curves, intersections or bridges, that demand higher friction in
order to reduce vehicle skidding and save lives. The application process
requires broadcasting the aggregate either by hand or mechanical method to the
pavement surface using a polymer binder. Studies have shown that improving the
friction by using HFST reduces crashes by 50-100%. Calcined bauxite is the
aggregate of choice for HFST because of its abrasive qualities, hardness, and
ability to hold frictional resistance over time. They are made up of a
long lasting or durable, polish-resistant aggregates that is applied and bonded
to the roads using strong polymer resin binder.

Benefits of High Friction Surface
Treatment:

 

Ø 
Reduce crashes, injuries, and deaths – Almost all the States that have
performed testing on high-crash areas treated with HFSTs report significant
reductions in crashes involving injuries or fatalities.

Ø 
Have very little to no impact environmentally
or on traffic –  Installing HFSTs takes a relatively short amount of
time and they have very limited environmental impacts – especially when
compared to road realignments.

Ø 
Customizable for different locations – The
components used in HFSTs can be adjusted for different uses and in areas with
severe climates.

Ø 
produce measurable results – Several
states have produced very favorable results when using HFSTs on their roadways.
One significant study from Kentucky showed that the number of crashes
experienced on 26 different horizontal curves was reduced from an average of
6.2 to 1.9 accidents per year.

Ø 
Very long-lasting and durable – The
expected lifecycle of HFSTs is about more than ten years, which shows that they
are a long-term and durable solution.

Ø 
Less expensive than other improvements – It
is notably less expensive to use HFSTs to increase the safety of roadways than
to have to realign or otherwise reconfigure them to prevent crashes.

Ø 
Drivers will notice that there is an increase in
the amount of “grip” that they feel when moving from traditional asphalt onto
roadways that are covered with a high friction surface treatment. Additionally,
HFSTs are an improvement over traditional surfaces because the high friction
materials are resistant to polishing and abrasion, further reducing the chances
of skidding and hydroplaning.

Ø 
High friction surface treatments are an
innovation that can reduce accidents and save lives.

Applications:

High friction surface treatments are used in areas that have
higher numbers of crashes, including:

Ø 
Horizontal curves

Ø 
Intersections and ramps

Ø 
Bridge decks

Ø 
Sections at steep grades

Ø 
School zones

Ø 
Bus and bike lanes

 

2)     
Reduce
crash by using an Automotive Vehicles:

 

An automotive vehicle that can guide itself
without human conduction. This kind of vehicle has become a concrete reality and may pave the way
for future systems where computers take over the art of driving. An automotive car is also known as a
driverless car, robot car, self-driving car or autonomous vehicle. Mostly people consider that the autonomous
vehicles are a significant part of the future of the automobile industry. As
the technology advances to develop in the field of autonomous vehicles, it
would be necessary for governments to address the potential impacts of these
vehicles on the road.

Every year, the states considering legislation related
to autonomous vehicles are increasing gradually. For example- 21
states—Alabama, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia,
Illinois, Louisiana, Michigan, New York, Nevada, North Carolina, North Dakota,
Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia and Vermont—and
Washington D.C. have already passed the legislation related to autonomous
vehicles.

 

Benefits of an
automotive vehicles:

Ø 
Safer transportation than any other cars

Ø 
 self-driving cars could reduce vehicle-
related fatalities. Because machines make fewer mistakes than humans.

Ø 
It is fully runs on software. So, there are very
less chances of car crashes.

 

As we can see more than a half of our worlds
population believes that autonomous vehicles are safe.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ø 
https://greatlakesminerals.com/2017/10/improve-road-safety-with-high-friction-surface-treatment/

 

 

Ø 
http://asirt.org/initiatives/informing-road-users/road-safety-facts/road-crash-statistics

 

Ø 
https://www.google.com/search?q=statistics+for+autonomous+cars+in+florida&rlz=1C1CHZL_enUS748US748&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjXz7n_lP_YAhXB61MKHd0nAX0Q_AUIDSgE&biw=1920&bih=900#imgdii=e2Z1E2voBMFgXM:&imgrc=-PFqHsSQoNf3qM:

 

 

Ø 
https://www.google.com/search?q=high+friction+surface+treatment&tbm=isch&tbs=rimg:CUYSdT0dpK7DIjht9iPOpJDvrmalC5HHFO4JkIob9iG832eyceR0GzGf4wcNgZ9TxpTGZthxc2peXEaOocTAsFLByyoSCW32I86kkO-uETg6the3GWavKhIJZqULkccU7gkRGsIQp4Yx2SkqEgmQihv2IbzfZxGgZ9fZgQQkCSoSCbJx5HQbMZ_1jEZUII3Sd45AtKhIJBw2Bn1PGlMYROHdEDO2g9jYqEglm2HFzal5cRhFcr1khW2fOpSoSCY6hxMCwUsHLEYWMMNBiAsqu&tbo=u&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjjkLHQhv_YAhWGmeAKHdrMAzkQ9C8IHw&biw=1920&bih=900&dpr=1#imgdii=_2Ij3P15-AHYxM:&imgrc=e3WMHg9gN8jOwM:

 

Ø 
autonomous vehicles, self-driving
vehicles enacted legislation (2017, 23rd October), Washington, D.C,
retrieved from http://www.ncsl.org/research/transportation/autonomous-vehicles-self-driving-vehicles-enacted-legislation.aspx

 

Ø  https://greatlakesminerals.com/applications/high-friction-surface-treatment/