Transportation sector is
one of the main harmfully effective sectors on environment, more than 95 per
cent of transports depend on crude oil as a source of energy, which conceder 25
per cent of the CO2 emissions.  This
sector has major effect on the society and the economic growth. Also the
economic growth rise the demand on the transport, thus transport planning must
take in consideration environmental concerns such as, air pollution and climate
change, health effects, accessibility issues and poverty eradication. These
aspects necessitate meeting transport and growth needs in a sustainable manner.

 

Increasing mobility choices
for the people and decreasing the negative impact needs a combination of
methods that avoid unnecessary travel through good planning for transport and
land use, also shifting to cleaner modes through encouraging the development
oriented to public transit and improve the fuel and vehicle efficacy through green
technologies. Non-existence of diversity of transport infrastructure will lead to an increase in the greenhouse emissions form the privet
cars, also polluting the air of the cities, increasing traffic congestion, and damage
to safety levels. Furthermore, failure to regulate urbanization will result in
excessive use of private vehicles, which often relies on fossil fuels.

The UNEP Green Economy report states that the sustainable transport
sector could reduce global greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector
by 70 per cent if the increased demand for mobility services is separated from dependence
on fossil fuels, which could happened through technology innovations and
policies that support the preservation of an environment.

 

Achieving sustainability requires efficient vehicle technology, high
quality, intelligent urban planning, a strong infrastructure for cyclists and
pedestrians, an efficient public transport system and many other requirements
together. To reach an efficient transport
systems the German development
agency (GIZ) encourages the holistic (Avoid – Shift – Improve) approach in each
transports types, such as Passengers/ Cargo, Land / Aviation / Marine. (See
Figure 2)Many areas
need to be addressed to achieve this approach, including correcting policies
direction to motivate green investment and correct external negative impacts. These
policies in the transportation sector revolve around raising people’s
awareness, planning land use, regulating vehicle and fuel standards, and so
forth. Also in the field of public policy, economic tax reform is one of the
effective measures. On the other hand, investment should also be made in all
areas of transport. Focusing on the development of city infrastructure to
support sustainable transport such as mass transit and non-motorized transport.

The use of transportation and green vehicles need to be promoted, in addition
to supportive technology and alternative fuels (for example, GPS systems and
intelligent transport system). Modern communication technology is also one
investment opportunity that may help to improve transportation efficiency. According
to Leather et al. (2009), to develop appropriate economic incentives, a shift
in funding priorities must be made. Public and private funding should be
provided for green transport for example, fuel subsidies. As well as the
transfer of resources from unsustainable transport to sustainable transport.

One of the most important factors for decision-making is job creation. Economic
debate puts green jobs on its agenda. The green job in the transport sector may
be in the operation and manufacture of trains and buses (such as subway
drivers), also in the construction or expansion of public transport
infrastructure, non-motorized modes or railways. Also working in alternative
engines and fuels is considered a green job opportunity. Green transport jobs
can include all employees of companies that contribute to the construction of
public transport systems such as engineers who design cities and transport
systems, and develop a vision for future implementation, and local industries,
that aim to rise the efficiency of energy use by, for example, produces
bicycles to logistic or operations companies. If we look at informal sector,
there are questions about how green jobs such as; Tok Tok drivers, will be
affected by the transition to a green economy. There is not enough data, and
usually people in several small works together. The informal sector may lead to
improve living conditions, although some green jobs are likely to be lost. Thus,
we conclude that to maintain or create green jobs, green and sustainable
transport system must be developed.

In
Johannesburg, South Africa, there was a need to develop the transport system
through design and build the bus rapid transit system (BRT). This project was implemented
first by obtaining advice on institutional and regulation challenges and
contracting on stations and buses. Second, due to the high costs of switching
to green transportation, the project was registered in the CDM for loans and
financial advice. Third, the city negotiated with private taxi factories to manufacture
according to the new transportation system. This project has a great benefit
especially for poor suburban residents, which saves a lot of costs and time. On
the other hand, the project has provided many green jobs, such as bus drivers,
station workers and infrastructure. Moreover, the system is environmentally
friendly and limits the car congestion and air pollution.

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