Trauma letting failure overcome him or her and

Trauma and Resilience

Introduction

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            When
one thinks of trauma and resilience, what comes to mind? Attitude, emotions,
failure, hope, stress, health, family and relationship problems and the list
can go on. Determining the meaning of life is a key concept within the context
of positive psychology. Adolescents are trying to figure out life as far as to
what they want to accomplish, this refers to goals and motivation. During your
adolescent years, is when puberty hits hard and it is up to that individual to
fight back. So as far as trauma and resilience goes in adolescents, let us take
a closer look at what defines resilience, the principles and factors that make
resilience important, the programs that are in place for the adolescents group,
the good and bad outcomes of the program that are put into place and research
that has made this group stand out in the public eye. Bad things happen to
everyone, why? However, describing a psychological or mental health response
following exposure to a traumatic event as a single, universal mechanism has
turned out to be an unachievable goal since there is no response to it.
Moreover, it is apparent that there are individual differences in resilience
and risk factors that play a crucial role in response to potentially traumatic
event and prevent a description of a response to an event that would affect
people uniformly.

 Definition and Principles of Resiliency

            Resiliency is broad when it comes to definitions meant
that they all are different in the eye of the beholder but leads up to the same
meaning. Resilient people are individuals who display “the capacity to remain
well, recover, or even thrive in face of adversity” (Hardy, Concato & Gill,
2004, page 257). In studying resilience, there are not one but three critical conditions:
growing up in distressing life conditions and demanding societal conditions
that are considered significant threats or severe adversities, the availability
of protective factors that include internal assets and external resources that
may be associated with counteracting the effects of risk factors, and achieving
the positive adaptation despite experiences of significant adversity (Windle,
2011). Resilience is the process of adapting well in the face of adversity,
trauma, tragedy, threats of significant sources of stress – such as family and
relationship problems, serious health problems or workplace and financial
stressors. It means “bouncing back” from difficult experiences (American
Psychological Association, 2014). Basically, what this means is that instead of
letting failure overcome him or her and drown, they will find a way to rise and
swim to the surface. Miracles happen but they do not happen overnight. It takes
time and patience to see things through. The key word here is to “overcome” the
hurt and pain from the trauma which they have suffered from. Soldiers do not
allow anything to hold them back from conquering what is in front of them;
life.

            Humans
do not control the outcomes of their life, principles do. Although one does not
control the outcomes, they will become adept with predicting the outcomes of
his or her behavior. Looking at the principles of resilience, what comes to
mind? Does one person apply   them to their daily lives? There are seven
principles of resilience, which are:

1.      Maintain diversity and
redundancy

a.       Conserve and value
redundancy

b.      Maintain ecological
diversity

c.       Build diversity and
redundancy into governance systems

d.      Focus less on maximum
efficiency, even if it costs more

2.      Manage connectivity

a.       Map connectivity

b.      Identify important elements
and interactions

c.       Restore connectivity

d.      Optimize current
connectivity patterns

3.      Manage slow variables and
feedbacks

a.       Strengthen feedbacks that
maintain desirable regimes

b.      Avoid actions that obscure
feedbacks

c.       Monitor important slow
variables

d.      Establish governance
structures that can respond to monitoring information

4.      Foster complex adaptive
systems thinking

a.       Investigate critical
thresholds and non-linearities

b.      Match institutions to
social-ecological systems processes

c.       Recognize barriers to
cognitive change

5.      Encourage learning

a.       How do we encourage
learning?

                                                                                                 
i.     
Ensure sufficient resources to enable learning process to
take place

                                                                                               
ii.     
Enable people to network and create communities of practice

                                                                                             
iii.     
Engage a variety of participants

6.      Broaden participation

a.       How can we broaden
participation?

                                                                                                 
i.     
Clarify your goals and expectations of the participation
process

                                                                                               
ii.     
Find inspired and motivated leaders that can mobilize the
group

                                                                                             
iii.     
Secure sufficient resources to enable effective participation

7.      Promote polycentric
governance

a.       Polycentric governance
raises three challenges:

                                                                                                 
i.     
The need to balance redundancy and experimentation with the
costs of involving members of multiple governance bodies and interests.

                                                                                               
ii.     
Negotiating trade-offs between various users of ecosystem
services

                                                                                             
iii.     
Dealing with resolving political conflict and the potentially
skewed benefits of common resources, also so-called “scale-shopping” where
groups dissatisfied with politics at one scale simply approach a more favourable
political venue in which to frame their interests (MindMatters, n.d.).

Adolescents
and the Challenges They Face

            Adolescents face many challenges along their period of
growth. During the intergenerational transmission stage of trauma, it
approaches more than one topic such as psychodynamic, family systems,
epidemiological, sociological, and biological levels of analysis. Embitterment
is a response to severe, but normative, stressful events that is different from
life-threatening trauma that precedes posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A case
study that was found to be very interesting when it comes to adolescents on the
subject of trauma and resiliency.

Case Study

Kianna was placed into
residential treatment at age 14 following surrender of parental rights at age
11, five foster placements, and psychiatric hospitalizations where she was diagnosed
with Bipolar Disorder, Dissociative Disorder, and Mild Mental Retardation.
While living with her fourth foster family, she started cutting herself,
threatening to kill herself, and running away. Kianna alleged that this foster
family had physically abused her but this was ‘unfounded.’ Kianna was then
moved into a pre-adoptive family. However, when she began getting into
screaming ‘fights’ with her pre-adoptive mother, her county department of
social services placed Kianna into residential treatment based on her diagnoses
and behavior problems. A few months later, her pre-adoptive family stopped
visiting. . By age 16, with no viable family options for kinship care and
Kianna’s refusal to consider living in another foster family, the county social
services department authorized a long-term goal of returning Kianna to her
mother when she became a legal adult at age 18. Kianna began RLH treatment in her third year of residential
treatment at age 16 in an effort to reduce her self-abusive and high risk
behaviors. Like many adolescents in group care, she functioned like a much
younger child cognitively, socially and emotionally. Kianna’s experiences
reflect the challenges of continuing trauma and attachment-centered treatment
with severely and multiply stressed families and youth who have lived with
disrupted and often chaotic and disorganized attachments (Kagan & Spinazzola, 2013).

Programs that
have been developed to Build Resiliency

            Current
resilience programs seeking to support student knowledge, skills, capacities to
manage life challenges and maintain mental wellbeing tend to be underpinned by many
overlapping theoretical approaches. These includes:

1.      Social and emotional
learning

a.       CASEL (Collaborative for
Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning) identifies 5 core social and
emotional competencies for students to develop, which are:

                                                                                                 
i.     
Self-awareness

                                                                                               
ii.     
Self-management

                                                                                             
iii.     
Social awareness

                                                                                             
iv.     
Relationship skills

                                                                                               
v.     
Responsible decision-making

2.      Cognitive behavioural
approaches

a.       Focuses on interactions
between thoughts, feelings and behaviours

3.      Positive psychology

a.       Study of conditions and
processes that contribute to the flourishing or optimal functioning of people,
groups, and institutions (Gable & Hadt, 2005).

4.      Mindfulness

a.       the belief that by connecting
with the present moment and calmly observing our thoughts, feelings and
sensations we increase our self-awareness and improve our capacity to manage our
thoughts and emotions (MindMatters, n.d.)

Compare and
Contrast the Programs and Outcomes

            No
program is perfect and there are going to always be trial and error because no
one individual is the same as the next. School-based programs can only do so
much for an adolescent because when he or she leaves that school for the day,
they still have to go home and deal with the chaos. Anxiety, depression, and suicide
show peak emergence during the adolescent age as well as showing common risk
factors that many are not aware of. During the research phase for this paper, mindfulness
program kept popping up everywhere. Assuming that was a sign to discuss this
topic first. Mindfulness program is put in place as a prevention program for
anxiety, depress, and eating disorders.

            With this
program they authors suggested that further research be done when it came to
identifying active ingredients and optimal dose in mindfulness-based
interventions in school settings. Society as to “teach” things to individuals
because within these programs, these adolescents are primarily visual learners.
It is important to consider the contribution of participant-specific variables
to the outcomes of studies with adolescents.

Research that
Applies to the Programs

            Social
support can mitigate the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in
children and adults following traumatic events. However, little is known about
the role of social support in high-risk samples of adolescents from the
community. There was a study done that examined the relationship between social
support and PTSD in adolescents who were exposed to traumatic events and
childhood adversity, after adjusting for the effects of potential covariates,
including sociodemographic factors, previous childhood adversity, level of
exposure, comorbid anxiety, depression symptoms, and substance abuse, and
coping strategies (Pinto, Morgado, Reis, Monteiro, Levendosky,  & Jongenelen, 2017).

            In this
study, there were 183 adolescents who participated that ranged from 13 to 17
years old. There were 89 young men and 94 young women who were up for
participating in a study so vivid. The results indicated that social support is
not as significant enough to reduce PTSD symptoms in adolescents who are
exposed to trauma and adversity at a young age. They would need programs that
not only focus on social support but programs that will give them a whole new
perspective on life in generally. An individual may need to see the proof in
the pudding to help them grow.

Conclusion

            This
paper endeavors to clarify the range of possible relationships between trauma
and resilience among adolescents. Resilience requires both a risk factor and
some type of protective factor that reduces the negative impact of the risk
factor. Adolescents are more resilient if they have a safe and stable environment;
have a strong bond to their family members, schools, and communities. The most
important key factor is to be able to develop age appropriate cognitive and
social skills to function in their age bracket.

Gaining a better
understanding of the principles, definitions, and programs of resilience in
adolescents should help increase resilience in our youth and give them
something to look forward to in their futures. Even though one approach may not
work for that one child in particular does not mean it will not work for the
next child. Trial and error is a very important part of growth as whole when it
comes to finding out why an individual is important. Bad things happen to
everyone, why? Humans do not control the outcomes of their life, principles do.
Although one does not control the outcomes, they will become adept with
predicting the outcomes of his or her behavior. Every human-being needs
structure as well as guidance to conquer whatever goals that he or she is
motivated to do. People always say, “When one door close, another one will
open; but we always seem to look at the door that is closed for so long that we
do not see the new door that is opened with new goals, opportunities, and
happiness.”