uMERU UNIVERSITY OFSCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF COMPUTING ANDINFORMATICS DEPARTMENT OF IT ANDCOMPUTER SCIENCEPROPOSAL TITLE:THE USE OF INFORMATION COMMUNICATIONTECHNOLOGY IN ENHANCING MAIZE FARMING IN TRAN-NZOIA COUNTY.GLORY NKATHAREG NO: BS205/4005/14 This project is submitted inpartial fulfilment of the requirement forthe Meru University of Science and Technology award of BACHELOR OF BUSINESSINFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DECLARATIONI Glory Nkatha declare thatthis proposal is based on my originalwork except for citations and work has not been submitted for the award of anyacademic certificate at Meru University of Science and Technology or any otherinstitution whatsoever. Signature: _________________________Name: _________________________ SupervisorThis proposal has been submitted for examination in Meru University ofscience and technology with my approval as University Supervisor.Supervisor Name: Mr.
Eli Kangaru.Signature…………………………………………………….Date……………………………. DEDICATIONI uniquelydedicated this proposal to my family members for their continued support and myfriend who have assisted me in the development of the idea. ABSTRACTMaizeproduction in very essential activity in the agricultural sector being thestaple food for most of the households in the Kenyan community. There has beenseveral websites developed in the aid of the farmers to obtain relevant andadequate information on the best farming practices. Farmers are teaming up tolook for better services and to find the most appropriate way to carry outtheir farming activities according to change in technology. E.
g. Ag hub modularfarming based system in new Zealand is a farm management system collecting anddisplaying automated data, so that you have just one place to go forinformation and insight about your farm. It lets you do the managing andmonitoring you’re doing now, plus a lot more, without the clutter of notebooksand paperwork.Bydevelopment of maize farmer’s management system it will enable the maizefarmers in to improve on their activities by having them manage orders, farmleases and secure storage of the information by the system online from acentral point of view. For the research purposes and data collection I will usequestioners which will be given to the farmers concerning the challenge theyare facing facilitating high yield in maize production also observation of theactivities carried by farmers and their way of doing things. Table of Contents Pages DECLARATION.
. 2 DEDICATION.. 3 ABSTRACT. 4 CHAPTER ONE. 7 INTRODUCTION..
7 1.1: Background. 7 1.1.1: Historical 7 220.127.116.11: implementation.
7 18.104.22.168: Information Technology solution.
8 1.1.2: Theoretical 8 1.1.
3: conceptual 9 1.1.4: contextual 9 1.
2: PROBLEM STATEMENT. 10 1.3: OBJECTIVES. 11 1.
4: HYPOTHESIS. 11 1.5: PROJECT JUSTIFICATON.. 11 1.
4 : SCOPE. 12 1.5: PROJECT JUSTIFICATON.. 12 CHAPTER TWO.. 13 LITERATURE RIVIEW.
.. 13 2.1: introduction. 13 2 .1.
1: Ag Hub farming system.. 13 2.1.2: Agrivi farm management system.. 15 2.
1.3: BigHaat.com.. 16 CHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION1.1: Background1.
1:implementation Maize was domesticated in the Tehuacan valleyof Mexico in the early 21st centuary.it is believe that about 2500BC the crop spread to other parts of America. Acording to astudy by (Ranumet al, 2014), domestication of maize was done through a singledomestication southern mexico about 9000 years down the line.
The study alsodemonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of Mexicanhighlands that later spread to other parts of the world (Qiu et al, 2010).Kenya’seconomy majorly depends on agriculture maize being the staple food. Maizeaccounts for over 40% of calorie intake by the Kenyan population. Evidenceshows that two out of every three farmers in Kenya grow maize and it accountsto 20% of the gross farm output in the smallholder sector (Ranum et al, 2014).Governmentpolicies aimed at modernizing agriculture need to be designed in a way that itdistributes the risk and challenges faced by the farmers (Dalton et al,2014).the grain market in the country has been concentrated in maize owing tothe fact that it is a staple food and a source of income to the majority of thepopulation.Trans-Nzoia County is oneof the country major leading producers of maize in Kenya and are not inexception to the various risks (korir et al 2011)from natural, economic andpolitical environment 1.1.
1.2:Information Technology solutionPopulation growth and changingdiets are contributing to a sharp increase in maize demand, hence productionhas to be increased. This brings rise to a need of an effective system thatwill be able to manage the maize production activities online. This willminimize the manual ordering of materials and digitally acquiring the relevantinformation regarding farm leases. The system will be able to keep the farmersdata safely and enhance safe modes of payments. Due to the high digitalpenetration in the country and high levels of literacy the farmers will be ableto carry on their activities with ease on the click of a button. The manager onthe other end will be able to monitor the orders and payments made. The world today is ideally becomingdigital in each and every second in life.
Everything is radically changing thedigital direction and hence in the future anything far from digital would beconsidered obsolete. This is due to high technology penetration globally. Agreater population can now be able to obtain information, place orders and manymore from a button click. Technology revolution in computers and internetdevelopment has greatly propelled the digital migration where access tointernet on mobile devices is widely increasing.
1.1.2:TheoreticalThereare theories that have been developed in line with agricultural production andits improvements. Domestication theory by Danniel Quin and other scholarsstates that humans first settled in particular areas where they abandoned theirnomadic ways of finding food and practiced animal domestication andagriculture. Demographic theory proposed by Carl saurer (1887-1975) argues thatthe increase in human population is hindered by the capacity of the naturalenvironment in supplying food.
Further increase in population facilitatenaturally wild produce food more insignificant.Carepathways theory of change was developed through a broad view of care and indeep analysis in each country and its implementation. Pathways theory changetries to define what needs to happen to achieve our goals.
Cares pathwaystrategy outlines how these changes will be promoted .A theory of change is anarticulation of the beliefs and assumptions that guide service deliverystrategy and are believed critical for producing change and improvement (Peña?Rosas et al, 2014).They represent what is needed by a target population and what will enable themmeet their needs.They establish a context for considering the connectionbetween a system’s mission, strategies and actual outcomes (Bänziger et al, 2000) ,while creating links between who is being served, the strategies or activitiesthat are being implemented, and the desired outcomes. 1.1.3:conceptualFarmer is a person who owns or manages afarm. The term usually applies to people who dosome combination of raising field crops, orchards, vineyards, poultry, or other livestock.
Maize (called corn in some countries)is zea mays, a member of the grass family poaceae. Itis a cereal grain which was first grown by people in ancient Central America. It is now the third most important cereal crop in the world. Management is theorganization and coordination of the activities of a business in order toachieve defined objectives.it is included as a factor of production along withmachines, materials and money. According to Guru Peter Drucker (1909-2005) thebasic task of management include marketing and innovation.A System is a set ofconnected things or parts forming a complex whole in particular.
This enablesthem to work together.1.1.4:contextualMaizefarming has been in practice for many years and people used traditional meansto manage their activities. Due to the increase in demand of maize and thedevelopment of new technology a need to use online system in managing the maizeproduction in Tran-Nzoia is important. Management being an important tool inevery business it has to be properly enhanced to provide better yields.There is a challenge forthe farmers to obtain the right materials and make the right orders. They maynot obtain the best suppliers in time hence the system will guarantee timelyorders and delivery.
1.2: PROBLEM STATEMENT Consideringmaize to be the staple food of the country its availability and accessibilityis a useful indicator of food security in the country (GoK 2011) however its productionis faced with greater challenges. Manual practices of the most farmingactivities is widely practiced. This has posed great challenges in obtainingquality materials, timely delivery and right training on the farming activities.
Interested farmers also lack concrete information on the available land onlease by the dealers its location and charges. This mainly aims at reclaimingidle land and putting it into cultivation. This has brought a greater need fora system to aid the maize farmers obtain quality input resources on time hencecutting on the cost of travelling in search. It provide farmers central accessof all materials required and safe modes of payments.
Farmers also will haveguaranteed security on information provided and can be used for futurereference.Thesystem is also able to connect the interested farmers with up to dateinformation on land leases, cost and location. This will greatly enhance growthin the agricultural sector and increase food security in the country sincemaize is the staple food of all Kenyans. 1.3: OBJECTIVESMain objective· To develop a system that will enable maizefarmers get quick access to various farming inputs. Specific objectives I. To keep farmers records effectively andsecure through the use of passwords.
II. To enable farmers obtain detailedinformation on land lease and its appropriate details, quality hybrid seeds,and other materials on offer. III. To enable farmers make required orders andtheir payments online. IV. To help managers in monitoring orders andpayments.
1.4: HYPOTHESISThereis a direct relationship in enhancing farmer’s data security through the systemby ensuring there is use of passwords to reduce unauthorized access. There isease of obtaining the farm inputs by the farmers from one central point reducingthe cost and time spent during the search.
This is main contributing factor toincreasing maize production. Managers have a direct relation into monitoring ofthe orders and payments who for increased revenue generation through thesystem.1.5: PROJECT JUSTIFICATON Onlinemaize farmers Management System boosts farming in terms of speed, efficiency,accuracy and security. In the past, various activities such as buying seed,fertilizers and enquiries about trainings was done manually hence tiresome andtime consuming. From the comfort of the farmer’s home, the farmer is able touse this system to order for seeds, apply for seeds, identify available land onlease and get updates on the recent technological farming methods and evenrequest for delivery services at the comfort of his/her home. This system isefficient in terms of keeping famers records hence provide a way for future reference.
This system is also secure in terms of the use of proper authenticationmechanisms. The security helps to keep farmers information safe and preventillegal access by unauthorized users. This system also provides a forum forbetter service delivery adequate information on maize production materials thatare aimed to improve the production.1.
4: SCOPEFarmersbeing the main participant of the system they will be enabled to view seeds,fertilizers and agro chemicals at the comfort of their home.Thesystem will also cover Trans-Nzoia County as the main target to the maize farmers.Farmers will also be at a privilege to place orders and make payments at home.Tomake payments farmers must have created an account or log in to the previousaccount in the event they have already existing account.
Thesystem manager will be able to upload photos of different seeds and theirpackage, pesticides and other chemicals, available land on lease, monitorpayments and keep track of the farmers.1.5: PROJECT JUSTIFICATONOnlinemaize farmers Management System boosts farming in terms of speed, efficiency,accuracy and security. In the past, various activities such as buying seed,fertilizers and enquiries about trainings was done manually hence tiresome andtime consuming. From the comfort of the farmer’s home, the farmer is able touse this system to order for seeds, apply for seeds, identify available land onlease and get updates on the recent technological farming methods and evenrequest for delivery services at the comfort of his/her home.Thissystem is efficient in terms of keeping famers records hence provide a way forfuture reference.
This system is also secure in terms of the use of properauthentication mechanisms. The security helps to keep farmers information safeand prevent illegal access by unauthorized users. This system also provides aforum for better service delivery adequate information on maize productionmaterials that are aimed to improve the production. CHAPTER TWOLITERATURERIVIEW2.
1: introductionFarming activities haveundergone a milestone of change over the past few years. Farmers are teaming upto look for better services and to find the most appropriate way to carry outtheir farming activities according to change in technology.This has highly beeninfluenced by the high technology advancement with over 80% percent mobilepenetration and embracement of the new technology. Many systems have beendeveloped in different parts of the world to enhance online management offarming activities which allows farmers to easily manage all activities by theclick of a button.
2.1.1:Ag Hub farming systemAg Hub is a modularonline farm management system that collects and displays automated data, sothat you have just one place to go for information and insight about your farm.It lets you do the managing and monitoring you’re doing now, plus a lot more, withoutthe clutter of notebooks and paperwork. It was probablythe first company or business that got into online farmers management in aserious way.
It was first named as modular farming later changed to Ag Hubonline farming system and is seemingly signing up a good number of users(Aghub.com, 2012).It is an online proven farm management system thatautomatically collects and displays data to aid in gaining a deeperunderstanding to the farmers about the happening in their farms. This aids intime saving, informed decisions and increased productivity.it is configured tosuit all the needs of the New Zealand farm.
Mapping of the farm is done andthen you can be able to search for modules interested in. there are specialistto assist the farmers in obtaining the best modules based on their needs.Featuresof the systemFarmingactivities profilingData from the farmers andother users is available in the systemOrderentry and managementIt provides a userfriendly interface in the Microsoft windows for all order entry functions.
Consultingand documentationThere is linkage ofinformation to enhance evaluation by the agricultural officers, including thealerts, checks and warnings with reporting system.Advantages of the systemIt keeps track of all theactivities that farmers carries out and gives a report of the progress.It has linkage with othercompanies who supply clothing and other equipment’s to the farmersDisadvantagesItdoes not give the farmers exposure to trainings about how to carry out farming effectivelyItis limited to supplying one type of the farm input giving farmers limitedchoice of farm inputsThereis no room for application of contracts i.e. lease of land, hiring of machineryto perform farm operations.
2.1.2: Agrivi farm managementsystemAgrivi is an applicationavailable in the play store since May 2014 developed by agrivi an android developer.It helps the farmers organize the whole farm, allocation of resources andperforming all the farming activities. It operates in Brazil under themanagement of Diana Combra and her husband working with farmers who growsoybeans. It I dedicated to bring knowledge to other farmers so that they canimprove their business operations and technical support and financialknowledge.it deals with various strategies (Marques 2017) and methods to keep farm productive,sustainable, and resistant and profitable.
The system is based on;Knowledgebase of best practice processes-for the success of any farmer they need skillsto be able to produce what the market requires and to the satisfaction of customers.This system provides knowledge based on how to perform some activities in thefield, pest treatments and fertilizers enabling farmers to make informed decisions (Oljaca, et al 2015).Realfarm data-agrivi enables you to collect, process and store all farm data in theform of information needed (CHAUHAN, R. M. 2015). to carry out operationsfunctions of the farm i.
e. inputs used, their cost and data on land use.Ontime information- multiple risk face the farmers which are beyond their controlsuch as weather conditions, diseases demand and market supply or market pricesfor the farm inputs.
Through agrivi events are traceable through the system andimmediately visible in the farm management software (in real time) to preventfurther waste and damage.2.1.
3: BigHaat.comBigHaat.comwas started in January 2015 by Sachin, Kumar and Raj aiming to empower farmersby providing them with quality agro inputs and accessories through a marketplatform since they were aware of the multiple challenges faced by the farmers.Beingan online market BigHaat allow the farmers to shop farm inputs such as seeds,crop protection nutrients and solutions and agro instruments. It is a hybridmodel allowing online orders and also manually where they can interact with thecustomers directly and help them place for the orders required. Other customersinclude nurseries, poly-house and contract farming communities. They have acall center where customers can call for enquiries on the deliveries and thisallows follow-ups to be made.it is also a platform to connect the farmers toverified suppliers directly and reduce travel periods to secure their desiredproduct.
It also provides post sale support by providing the demand forecastbased on their data. ReferencesBänziger, M.(2000). Breeding for drought and nitrogen stress tolerance in maize:from theory to practice. Cimmyt.
Li, H., Qiu, J., Wang,L., Tang, H., Li, C.
, & Van Ranst, E. (2010). Modelling impacts ofalternative farming management practices on greenhouse gas emissions from awinter wheat–maize rotation system in China.
Agriculture, ecosystems& environment, 135(1), 24-33.Ranum, P., Peña?Rosas, J. P., & Garcia?Casal, M. N. (2014). Global maize production,utilization, and consumption.
Annals of the New York Academy ofSciences, 1312(1), 105-112.Ranum, P., Peña?Rosas, J. P., & Garcia?Casal, M. N. (2014).
Global maize production,utilization, and consumption. Annals of the New York Academy ofSciences, 1312(1), 105-112.Oljaca, M., Gligorevic,K., Paic, M., & Dimitrovski, Z.
(2015). Android smart phone application forcontrol process in progressive agriculture production. In Proceedingsof the Second Symposium on Agricultural Engineering ISAE-2015 (pp.V13-V20). University of Belgrade, Faculty of Agriculture.
CHAUHAN, R. M. (2015). Advantages And Challeging in E Agriculture. Marques, M.
J. R.(2017). A Mobile Approach to Farmer-Computer Interaction