United states internation trade commission,1988,  pros and cons of initiating negotiations withJapan to explore the possibility of a US- Japanfree trade area agreement.  page   2016 by Nguyen-Phuong-Mai – file:///C:/Users/Owner/AppData/Local/Packages/Microsoft.

MicrosoftEdge_8wekyb3d8bbwe/TempState/Downloads/chapter-4-stereotypes-prejudices-racism.pdf  Stereotypes Communication,Shuli Zhang, 2009 available at: https://files.eric.

ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1065727.pdf     http://bethanyslinger.blogspot.

co.uk/2012/10/advantages-and-disadvantages-of.htmlPosted 3rd October 2012by Beth Slinger       https://www.simplypsychology.org/katz-braly.htmlSaul McLeod published 2008, updated 2015 Stereotypes   Pedro Bordalo, KatherineCo?man, Nicola Gennaioli, Andrei Shleifer, 2015available at http://scholar.harvard.

edu/files/shleifer/files/stereotypes_june_6.pdf  (Accessed 08/12/17)  (Kokusai, 2017) Cultural Differences Between the USA and Japan Available at: http://ksemoving.com/cultural-differences-usa-japan/(Accessed 7/12/17)      David Matsumoto, Tsutomu Kudoh and Sachiko Takeuchi ChangingPatterns of Individualism and Collectivism in the United States and Japan,1996available at: http://www.

davidmatsumoto.com/content/1996%20Changing%20Patters%20of%20Individualism%20and%20Collectivism.pdf    2017Hofstede Insights https://www.

hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/japan,the-usa/                http://www.japanintercultural.

com/en/news/default.aspx?newsID=154By Rochelle Kopp, Managing Principal, Japan InterculturalConsultingTHEDECISION MAKING PROCESS IN JAPANApr 02, 2012   Swaidan, Z. (2012, July 1). Culture and ConsumerEthics. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(2), 201-213.   Srilalitha, Sagi, 2015, “Ringi System” The Decision-Making Process inJapanese Management Systems: An Overview. Available at: https://www.researchgate.

net/publication/274641076_Ringi_System_The_Decision_Making_Process_in_Japanese_Management_Systems_An_Overview(07/12/17)          Jones. L. M 2007Hofstede – Culturally questionable? Available at: http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1389&context=commpapersPage 7 (Accessed 6/12/17) Hofstede, G.

(2001). Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and OrganizationsAcross Nations, 2nd Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.  Hofstede,G. (2011).

Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context.OnlineReadings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). https://scholarworks.

gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1014=orpc(Accessed 6/12/17) Hofstede, G. (1998).”Attitudes, Values and Organizational Culture: Disentangling theconcepts.

” Organization Studies 19(3): 477. Learning. Page 6 (Accessed6/12/17)BlessingF.

Adeoye, 2014, Effects of Information Capitalism and Globalization on Teaching and  Anastasia,2015,Understanding cultures and people with Hofstede Dimension. Available at: https://www.cleverism.com/understanding-cultures-people-hofstede-dimensions/(Accessed 6/12/17)     References:               (Zhang, 2009) believes thatthe stereotypes people hold have a direct influence on our communication withstrangers, therefore, these stereotypes will determine whether the conversationwill lead to effective communication or whether there will be barriers. These stereotypesabout a person can vary from the person’s race, culture, religion or even ethnicgroup. It’s important to be aware that  stereotyping can sometimes lead to effectivecommunication as you can simply categorise  others into groups which will lead to yousaving time  and you can quickly draw ona stereotype and respond to others, on the other hand, It is important to understandthe danger making incorrect categories for people which will cause peoplefirstly to feel they are not being treated as an individual but as a group andalso if the information is not accurate you risk creating a barrier to communication (Mai,2016). From the cases it’sclear that stereotyping can potentially lead to aid in effective communicationhowever it involves a great amount of risk as any inaccurate information yougive to someone you are stereotyping could cause a barrier to the communication,with that being said there are a majority of people that would prefer to betreated as an individual instead of a group which also shows that stereotypingcan lead to a barrier in communication.

On balance it is plausible to say thatstereotyping does lead to a barrier in communication however to avoid inaccurate stereotypes we should be consciousof the problem of misinterpreting others behaviour as we usually judge a personon the basis of our own beliefs if we can avoid misinterpreting others whichcould be done by increasing the complexity of our stereotypes for exampleincluding a larger number of traits and even subgroupswithin groups this could lead to stereotyping aiding communication (Zhang,2009).   The Oxford English Dictionaryde?nes a stereotype as a “widely held but ?xed and oversimpli?ed image or the idea of a particular type of person or thing”.(Bordalo, Co?man, Gennaioli, Shleifer, 2015) further explains “among otherthings, they cover racial groups (“Asians are good at math”), political groups(“Republicans are rich”), genders (“Women are bad at math”), demographic groups(“Florida residents are elderly”), and activities (“?ying is dangerous”). Asthese and other examples illustrate, some stereotypes are roughly accurate(“the Dutch are tall”. The origin of stereotypes is explained by (Bar-Tal, 1996)who believes that there is not one source that can contribute to the formationof stereotypes but a variety, for example,the social environment in which an individual interacts can contribute to theformation of stereotypes including sources such as parents, peer groups,family, media and schools. This shows there are various contributors tostereotypes which could mean children could grow up stereotypes depending onhow they are raised by their parents or what they see from media or inschools.    An article by (Wyatt,2017) explained theadvert for Aptamil baby milk formula that showed girls growing up to beballerinas and boys becoming engineers.

This is a clear evidence of genderstereotyping as the girl was portrayed as a ballerinawhich could imply that this is what all girls want to be when they grow up andthat boys will go into more manual labour and hands-on roles such as engineersor construction. This advert received a massive amount of complaints from theviewers and also lead to the advert being banned furthermore an article by(BBC, 2017) explained that the Advertising standard authority has been crackingdown and banning adds that feature stereotypical gender roles, in addition,other examples of stereotypes could be seen in the Weetabix breakfastcereal ad, a girl dressed in pink arranges dolls, dances, draws hearts in adiary, and pampers the family dog, while a boy, dressed in blue as a superhero,meddles in the girl’s activities (BBC, 2017).. This case shows that stereotype will cause a massivebarrier to effective communication as individuals are being judged beforeothers even build a relationship and get to know them, therefore, the individualbeing stereotyped will feel self-conscious about him or herself mainly becausebeing stereotyped means people will ignore the differences about an individualand focus more on a generalisation of a person, therefore, that person will notwant to communicate with others on the basis that he or she may be judged. Onthe other hand (Mc Leod,2008) argues that there is a positive to stereotypingwhich is that Stereotypes can be useful if you are in a new situationand need to make a quick judgment and fast decisions. For example, if you havenever been around a member of royalty before, you might stereotype them asbeing formal and reserved, which will help you to respond to them in arespectful manner to follow their behaviour.This shows that stereotyping can also be an aid to effective communication asit may allow you to adapt your approach to certain members of the public andwill lead to effective communication between the two individuals, this can beseen as a risk for an individual however it can have a positive effect if it isused accordingly.

(Slinger, 2012) explains another advantage of stereotyping isthat it allows you to simplify your surroundings so they are easier tounderstand. They aid you to categorisepeople into groups, which will simply allow you to form expectations of othersand situations making life more predictable and easy to understand. This showsthat stereotyping can lead to aid effective communications as you will be ableto easily have responses and expectations of others as you have already putthem into groups, therefore, you will already have an opinion of that individual which means conversations should flowsmoothly.    What is meant by stereotyping, provide an example and discuss how thismight act as a barrier, or an aid, to effective communication    (United States international trade commission,1988) arguesthat the advantage of Both USA and Japan doing business with each other is thatit will lead to both countries having a better understanding of each other whichwill involve problems, attitudes and even culture. Therefore both countriescould come to an agreement and make changes on a basis of doing businesstogether however on the other hand just because both countries form a betterunderstanding of each other this does not mean that the changes will beanything dramatic so there may still be tension with both countries doingbusiness together. Another mutual advantage of Both USA and Japan doingbusiness together is that both countries can come up with policies thatmutually benefit both countries when doing business, therefore, this willreduce the chances of conflicts between the countries in the future. On Balance, I believe that there is a hugecultural difference between the two countries however if they can learn tounderstand each other they could create many opportunities doing business witheach other in the future.To summarise looking at both issues they show the massivedifference in culture between USA and Japan.

The first issue on decision makingshows us that Japan and USA are both strict on their fundamentals with USAreacting quick to decisions to imply that this shows the characteristics of agreat leader and Japan taking their time with decision making which could implythat they are being decisive and accurate with their responses however itreveals that this method can be time-consumingand shows the inequality in Japan as the firms in Japan follow a hierarchal systemwhich only allows the people at the top to make a decision and they all must bein agreement before a decision can be made. The solution I recommended was forJapan to find a method which will speed up their decision making, for example,they could delegate their decision making to one individual in the companywhich will accelerate the decision-makingprocess. USA will need to slow down their decision making as (Kopp, R, 2015) believesthis will allow the country time to be more accurate with their decisions as they will have more time tocollect information.

The second cultural issue involved individualism vscollectivism. USA culture revolved around individualism as Americans viewedthem self as independent with the freedom of speech and rights to live theirlife their own way. Whereas the Japanese culture was based on collectivistwhich showed that Japanese people preferred to remain in groups and work forone company their entire life which shows they are very loyal people however itrevealed that Americans were much more independent then the Japanese. To resolvethis issue I suggested that the USA wouldneed to try and adapt their style and work in groups and the Japanese need to try to implement a method where they can bemore independent. Both issues show the huge difference in culture between theUSA and Japanese which is mainly the reason why they have these issues.   The second cultural issue thatcould potentially arrive between USA and Japan is individualistic vscollectivism. American culture has generally been viewed asindividualistic.

Americans tend to view themselves as independent people whoare primarily separate from others. Americans are taught to stand up for theirrights as an individual and that all people are created equally with the sameopportunities (Matsumoto, Kudoh and Takeuchi, 1996). American individualismpromotes the pursuit of individual dreams, goals and personal emotionfurthermore it encourages the questioning of authority rather than theobedience.

(Hofstede insights,2017) research shows us that Americansscore 91 on individualism which is clearly shown on the way Americans livetheir life’s independent.  Japanese culture,on the other hand, has generally been considered as collectivisticespecially since they have a low score of 46 for individualism.  Japanese people are focused on groups.Japanese people tend to work with one company for their entire life as loyaltyis valued and so they are much more disciplined with their roles compared to theUSA, which Is why most family members inJapan tend to stay living in the same house or close by (Kokusai, 2017).

 This shows that collectivism promotes moredisciplined people and encourages a hardworking ethic with individual sacrificeand social obligation which doesn’t sound like a positive however it hasproduced incredible results with Japans incredible economic growth. This issueon Japan and USA can be a difficult cultural issue to respond to as bothcountries operate differently which will canbe seen as a huge issue as there will always be a conflict with both USA and Japan trying to do business together.For USA and Japan to counter to this issue in the future I believe bothcountries need to learn to implement their fundamentals at the right time, sothe USA will need to not always remainindependent and actually work in groups and Japan will need to try to be moreindependent at times as they will rely on others too much and that could cause issues in the future if they don’ttry to be independent in certain situations therefore if both countries canimplement their beliefs in certain situations this will resolve the culturalissue between USA and Japan.    The first cultural issue that could arise when United Statesof America (USA) and Japan do business is speed vs consistency, in other words, the difference in decision makingbetween USA and Japan. American companies tend to make decisions very swiftlyand usually, it will be based on theinformation present at the time. In contrast,Japanese decision making is done a lot slower, this is because Japanese decision-makers tend to weigh the pros and consof a decision, therefore, they will neversay “yes or “no” immediately.

This is a common practice in Japan, however, this approach will lead toAmerican decision makers becoming frustrated as American culture honours quickand lightning fast decision makers so it is more likely to get a “yes” or “no”decision on the same day which shows the cultural barrier between both countriesdoing business together, so if there was an issue or the countries wanted to dobusiness together Japan will take more time to respond to USA which will cause frustrationfrom the USA as the country operates onquick decision making as they believe it reveals quality leaders. Japanese businesses follow a strict consensus-based decision-makingprocess as stated by (Srilalitha, Sagi, 2015) “Thetraditional decision-making process in Japanese firms is referred to as the “Ringi” system. The word Ringi consists of twoparts, the first being of “Rin” stands for submitting a proposal to one’ssupervisor and receiving their approval, the second “Gi” meaning deliberationsand decisions. The Ringi system is a traditional way of managerialdecision-making in Japan. This system that Japanese businesses have implementedwill cause a huge cultural issue with the USAas the Japanese their decisions are based on a hierarchal system which will endup slowing down decision making as they have to get all supervisors approvalson a single issue before making a decision whereas Americans will make thedecision immediately therefore when it comes to both countries working togetherthere will be issues with waiting as USA companies will want a decision rightaway but Japanese businesses will usually speak with all supervisors first. Inrelation to Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimension,his research has informed others that Individuals with larger power distance accept theinequality of power in their society.

” Which (Swaidan, 2012) states hishypothesis on power distance by saying “those who score low on the powerdistance scale reject unethical, questionable activities more than those whoscore high on the same scale”.  (Hofstedeinsights,2017) Japan currently has apower distance score of 54 whereas the USAIs lower at 40. (Hofstede insights,2017)which shows there is inequality amongst the companies in Japan as the company follows a hierarchal systemwhich means only the people at the top can make a decision which is whydecision making can be time-consuming inthese organisations. (Hofstede, G, 2011) suggested it is vital for managementto identify the strength of local culture and make use of it to completecertain tasks. This can be seen In both as Japan are sticking to theirtraditional method whereas In USA becausethere power distance is low this would suggest that everyone is deemed andtreated equally. (Kopp, R, 2015)  SuggestIn order for USA and Japan to resolve the cultural issue on decision makingJapanese firms will need to create their own method to speed up the decisionmaking whilst keeping their important fundamentals of decision making as thiswill allow the country to work more comfortably with the USA. Furthermore, I would suggest that the USA slow down their decision making as it willallow them to garner more information and to be decisive and make much moreaccurate decisions.   There are a few different viewpoints on Hofstede’s theory ofcultural dimension which has resulted in many criticisms and limitations ofthis theory as many arguments run against Hofstede’s work, the discussion whichfollows endeavours to capture some of the more pertinent issues.

(Jones, M,2007) Explains several key criticisms andlimitations of Hofstede’s theory ofcultural dimension. Primarily researchers have claimed that a major criticismof the theory Is that it is too old for any modern value which is due totoday’s rapidly changing global environments, internationalisation andconvergence. However, this was argued by Hofstede as he stated that the cross-cultural outcomes were based on centuriesof indoctrination and recent replications have supported the fact thattechnology will not change overnight (Hofstede 1998, 481). A key limitation ofHofstede’s cultural dimension theory is that it lacks dimensions, 6 dimensions are far too little to give sufficientinformation about cultural differences, Hofstede agrees as he believesadditional dimensions should continue to be added to his original work (Hofstede1998, 481). which will lead to an increase in information about culturaldifferences making it more accurate for anothertheorist to use.    As defined by (Blessing F,2014) Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions describes the effect of asociety’s culture on the value of its members, and how these values relate tobehaviour, using a structure derived from factor analysis. (Hofstede, G, 2011) explainsthat the theory is categorised into 6dimensions.

The first dimension is known as Power distance which is related tothe different solutions to the basic problem of human inequality. The second isUncertainty avoidance this is related to the level of stress in a society inthe face of an unknown future. The third is Individualism vs Collectivism whichis the degree to which people in a society are integrated into groups. Thefourth dimension is Masculinity versus Femininity, Masculinity implies a society’s preference for assertiveness,heroism, achievement and material reward for attaining success. On thecontrary, femininity represents a preference for modesty, cooperation, qualityof life and caring for the weak (Anastasia, 2015).

The Fifth Dimension is Longterm vs short term orientation, this is related to the choice of focus forpeople’s efforts: the future or the present and past. Finally, the sixthDimension is indulgence vs restraint, simply this revolves around the degree towhich societies can exercise control over their impulses and desires. In this essay, I will beusing Hofstede’s “Cultural dimensions” theory to compare the difference inculture from USA and Japan moreover Iwill also be discussing the potential problems that may arise for people fromthese two countries doing business with one another.

This will involve culturalissues such as speed vs consistency, Heterogeneousvs. Homogeneous cultures, individualism vs collectivism ideals between bothcountries. Lastly, I will summarise my essay by giving recommendationson how both countries can solve these issues.      Usingan appropriate model of cultural values, contrast two cultures then discusswhat potential problems might arise for people from these two cultures doingbusiness with one another.                     References……………………………………………………………………………..6      Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………..5Threats…………………………………………………………………………………5Box B question 1…………………………………………………………………………..3Box A compulsory question…………………………………………………..2Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….2 Contents page     Assignment- Formative Assessment Module Title:Cross-Cultural Management                                                                       Student ID: GRA14375978

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