United states internation trade commission,1988,  pros and cons of initiating negotiations with
Japan to explore the possibility of a US- Japan
free trade area agreement.  page




2016 by Nguyen-Phuong-Mai – file:///C:/Users/Owner/AppData/Local/Packages/Microsoft.MicrosoftEdge_8wekyb3d8bbwe/TempState/Downloads/chapter-4-stereotypes-prejudices-racism.pdf



Stereotypes Communication,
Shuli Zhang, 2009 available at: https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1065727.pdf







Posted 3rd October 2012
by Beth Slinger








Saul McLeod published 2008, updated 2015





Pedro Bordalo, Katherine
Co?man, Nicola Gennaioli, Andrei Shleifer, 2015
available at http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/shleifer/files/stereotypes_june_6.pdf  (Accessed 08/12/17)



(Kokusai, 2017) Cultural Differences Between the USA and Japan Available at: http://ksemoving.com/cultural-differences-usa-japan/
(Accessed 7/12/17)






David Matsumoto, Tsutomu Kudoh and Sachiko Takeuchi Changing
Patterns of Individualism and Collectivism in the United States and Japan,1996
available at: http://www.davidmatsumoto.com/content/1996%20Changing%20Patters%20of%20Individualism%20and%20Collectivism.pdf





Hofstede Insights https://www.hofstede-insights.com/country-comparison/japan,the-usa/






By Rochelle Kopp, Managing Principal, Japan Intercultural

Apr 02, 2012




Swaidan, Z. (2012, July 1). Culture and Consumer
Ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 108(2), 201-213.




Srilalitha, Sagi, 2015, “Ringi System” The Decision-Making Process in
Japanese Management Systems: An Overview. Available at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/274641076_Ringi_System_The_Decision_Making_Process_in_Japanese_Management_Systems_An_Overview


 Jones. L. M 2007
Hofstede – Culturally questionable? Available at: http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1389&context=commpapers
Page 7 (Accessed 6/12/17)


Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations
Across Nations, 2nd Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.



G. (2011). Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context.Online
Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1). https://scholarworks.gvsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1014=orpc
(Accessed 6/12/17)


Hofstede, G. (1998).
“Attitudes, Values and Organizational Culture: Disentangling the
concepts.” Organization Studies 19(3): 477.


Learning. Page 6 (Accessed

F. Adeoye, 2014, Effects of Information Capitalism and Globalization on Teaching and


Understanding cultures and people with Hofstede Dimension. Available at: https://www.cleverism.com/understanding-cultures-people-hofstede-dimensions/
(Accessed 6/12/17)





















(Zhang, 2009) believes that
the stereotypes people hold have a direct influence on our communication with
strangers, therefore, these stereotypes will determine whether the conversation
will lead to effective communication or whether there will be barriers. These stereotypes
about a person can vary from the person’s race, culture, religion or even ethnic
group. It’s important to be aware that  stereotyping can sometimes lead to effective
communication as you can simply categorise  others into groups which will lead to you
saving time  and you can quickly draw on
a stereotype and respond to others, on the other hand, It is important to understand
the danger making incorrect categories for people which will cause people
firstly to feel they are not being treated as an individual but as a group and
also if the information is not accurate you risk creating a barrier to communication (Mai,2016). From the cases it’s
clear that stereotyping can potentially lead to aid in effective communication
however it involves a great amount of risk as any inaccurate information you
give to someone you are stereotyping could cause a barrier to the communication,
with that being said there are a majority of people that would prefer to be
treated as an individual instead of a group which also shows that stereotyping
can lead to a barrier in communication. On balance it is plausible to say that
stereotyping does lead to a barrier in communication however to avoid inaccurate stereotypes we should be conscious
of the problem of misinterpreting others behaviour as we usually judge a person
on the basis of our own beliefs if we can avoid misinterpreting others which
could be done by increasing the complexity of our stereotypes for example
including a larger number of traits and even subgroups
within groups this could lead to stereotyping aiding communication (Zhang,




The Oxford English Dictionary
de?nes a stereotype as a “widely held but ?xed and oversimpli?ed image or the idea of a particular type of person or thing”.
(Bordalo, Co?man, Gennaioli, Shleifer, 2015) further explains “among other
things, they cover racial groups (“Asians are good at math”), political groups
(“Republicans are rich”), genders (“Women are bad at math”), demographic groups
(“Florida residents are elderly”), and activities (“?ying is dangerous”). As
these and other examples illustrate, some stereotypes are roughly accurate
(“the Dutch are tall”. The origin of stereotypes is explained by (Bar-Tal, 1996)
who believes that there is not one source that can contribute to the formation
of stereotypes but a variety, for example,
the social environment in which an individual interacts can contribute to the
formation of stereotypes including sources such as parents, peer groups,
family, media and schools. This shows there are various contributors to
stereotypes which could mean children could grow up stereotypes depending on
how they are raised by their parents or what they see from media or in
schools.    An article by (Wyatt,2017) explained the
advert for Aptamil baby milk formula that showed girls growing up to be
ballerinas and boys becoming engineers. This is a clear evidence of gender
stereotyping as the girl was portrayed as a ballerina
which could imply that this is what all girls want to be when they grow up and
that boys will go into more manual labour and hands-on roles such as engineers
or construction. This advert received a massive amount of complaints from the
viewers and also lead to the advert being banned furthermore an article by
(BBC, 2017) explained that the Advertising standard authority has been cracking
down and banning adds that feature stereotypical gender roles, in addition,
other examples of stereotypes could be seen in the Weetabix breakfast
cereal ad, a girl dressed in pink arranges dolls, dances, draws hearts in a
diary, and pampers the family dog, while a boy, dressed in blue as a superhero,
meddles in the girl’s activities (BBC, 2017).. This case shows that stereotype will cause a massive
barrier to effective communication as individuals are being judged before
others even build a relationship and get to know them, therefore, the individual
being stereotyped will feel self-conscious about him or herself mainly because
being stereotyped means people will ignore the differences about an individual
and focus more on a generalisation of a person, therefore, that person will not
want to communicate with others on the basis that he or she may be judged. On
the other hand (Mc Leod,2008) argues that there is a positive to stereotyping
which is that Stereotypes can be useful if you are in a new situation
and need to make a quick judgment and fast decisions. For example, if you have
never been around a member of royalty before, you might stereotype them as
being formal and reserved, which will help you to respond to them in a
respectful manner to follow their behaviour.
This shows that stereotyping can also be an aid to effective communication as
it may allow you to adapt your approach to certain members of the public and
will lead to effective communication between the two individuals, this can be
seen as a risk for an individual however it can have a positive effect if it is
used accordingly. (Slinger, 2012) explains another advantage of stereotyping is
that it allows you to simplify your surroundings so they are easier to
understand. They aid you to categorise
people into groups, which will simply allow you to form expectations of others
and situations making life more predictable and easy to understand. This shows
that stereotyping can lead to aid effective communications as you will be able
to easily have responses and expectations of others as you have already put
them into groups, therefore, you will already have an opinion of that individual which means conversations should flow




What is meant by stereotyping, provide an example and discuss how this
might act as a barrier, or an aid, to effective communication





(United States international trade commission,1988) argues
that the advantage of Both USA and Japan doing business with each other is that
it will lead to both countries having a better understanding of each other which
will involve problems, attitudes and even culture. Therefore both countries
could come to an agreement and make changes on a basis of doing business
together however on the other hand just because both countries form a better
understanding of each other this does not mean that the changes will be
anything dramatic so there may still be tension with both countries doing
business together. Another mutual advantage of Both USA and Japan doing
business together is that both countries can come up with policies that
mutually benefit both countries when doing business, therefore, this will
reduce the chances of conflicts between the countries in the future. On Balance, I believe that there is a huge
cultural difference between the two countries however if they can learn to
understand each other they could create many opportunities doing business with
each other in the future.

To summarise looking at both issues they show the massive
difference in culture between USA and Japan. The first issue on decision making
shows us that Japan and USA are both strict on their fundamentals with USA
reacting quick to decisions to imply that this shows the characteristics of a
great leader and Japan taking their time with decision making which could imply
that they are being decisive and accurate with their responses however it
reveals that this method can be time-consuming
and shows the inequality in Japan as the firms in Japan follow a hierarchal system
which only allows the people at the top to make a decision and they all must be
in agreement before a decision can be made. The solution I recommended was for
Japan to find a method which will speed up their decision making, for example,
they could delegate their decision making to one individual in the company
which will accelerate the decision-making
process. USA will need to slow down their decision making as (Kopp, R, 2015) believes
this will allow the country time to be more accurate with their decisions as they will have more time to
collect information. The second cultural issue involved individualism vs
collectivism. USA culture revolved around individualism as Americans viewed
them self as independent with the freedom of speech and rights to live their
life their own way. Whereas the Japanese culture was based on collectivist
which showed that Japanese people preferred to remain in groups and work for
one company their entire life which shows they are very loyal people however it
revealed that Americans were much more independent then the Japanese. To resolve
this issue I suggested that the USA would
need to try and adapt their style and work in groups and the Japanese need to try to implement a method where they can be
more independent. Both issues show the huge difference in culture between the
USA and Japanese which is mainly the reason why they have these issues.



The second cultural issue that
could potentially arrive between USA and Japan is individualistic vs
collectivism. American culture has generally been viewed as
individualistic. Americans tend to view themselves as independent people who
are primarily separate from others. Americans are taught to stand up for their
rights as an individual and that all people are created equally with the same
opportunities (Matsumoto, Kudoh and Takeuchi, 1996). American individualism
promotes the pursuit of individual dreams, goals and personal emotion
furthermore it encourages the questioning of authority rather than the
obedience. (Hofstede insights,2017) research shows us that Americans
score 91 on individualism which is clearly shown on the way Americans live
their life’s independent.  Japanese culture,
on the other hand, has generally been considered as collectivistic
especially since they have a low score of 46 for individualism.  Japanese people are focused on groups.
Japanese people tend to work with one company for their entire life as loyalty
is valued and so they are much more disciplined with their roles compared to the
USA, which Is why most family members in
Japan tend to stay living in the same house or close by (Kokusai, 2017).  This shows that collectivism promotes more
disciplined people and encourages a hardworking ethic with individual sacrifice
and social obligation which doesn’t sound like a positive however it has
produced incredible results with Japans incredible economic growth. This issue
on Japan and USA can be a difficult cultural issue to respond to as both
countries operate differently which will can
be seen as a huge issue as there will always be a conflict with both USA and Japan trying to do business together.
For USA and Japan to counter to this issue in the future I believe both
countries need to learn to implement their fundamentals at the right time, so
the USA will need to not always remain
independent and actually work in groups and Japan will need to try to be more
independent at times as they will rely on others too much and that could cause issues in the future if they don’t
try to be independent in certain situations therefore if both countries can
implement their beliefs in certain situations this will resolve the cultural
issue between USA and Japan.





The first cultural issue that could arise when United States
of America (USA) and Japan do business is speed vs consistency, in other words, the difference in decision making
between USA and Japan. American companies tend to make decisions very swiftly
and usually, it will be based on the
information present at the time. In contrast,
Japanese decision making is done a lot slower, this is because Japanese decision-makers tend to weigh the pros and cons
of a decision, therefore, they will never
say “yes or “no” immediately. This is a common practice in Japan, however, this approach will lead to
American decision makers becoming frustrated as American culture honours quick
and lightning fast decision makers so it is more likely to get a “yes” or “no”
decision on the same day which shows the cultural barrier between both countries
doing business together, so if there was an issue or the countries wanted to do
business together Japan will take more time to respond to USA which will cause frustration
from the USA as the country operates on
quick decision making as they believe it 
reveals quality leaders. Japanese businesses follow a strict consensus-based decision-making
process as stated by (Srilalitha, Sagi, 2015) “The
traditional decision-making process in Japanese firms is referred to as the “Ringi” system. The word Ringi consists of two
parts, the first being of “Rin” stands for submitting a proposal to one’s
supervisor and receiving their approval, the second “Gi” meaning deliberations
and decisions. The Ringi system is a traditional way of managerial
decision-making in Japan. This system that Japanese businesses have implemented
will cause a huge cultural issue with the USA
as the Japanese their decisions are based on a hierarchal system which will end
up slowing down decision making as they have to get all supervisors approvals
on a single issue before making a decision whereas Americans will make the
decision immediately therefore when it comes to both countries working together
there will be issues with waiting as USA companies will want a decision right
away but Japanese businesses will usually speak with all supervisors first. In
relation to Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimension,
his research has informed others that Individuals with larger power distance accept the
inequality of power in their society.” Which (Swaidan, 2012) states his
hypothesis on power distance by saying “those who score low on the power
distance scale reject unethical, questionable activities more than those who
score high on the same scale”.  (Hofstede
insights,2017) Japan currently has a
power distance score of 54 whereas the USA
Is lower at 40. (Hofstede insights,2017)
which shows there is inequality amongst the companies in Japan as the company follows a hierarchal system
which means only the people at the top can make a decision which is why
decision making can be time-consuming in
these organisations. (Hofstede, G, 2011) suggested it is vital for management
to identify the strength of local culture and make use of it to complete
certain tasks. This can be seen In both as Japan are sticking to their
traditional method whereas In USA because
there power distance is low this would suggest that everyone is deemed and
treated equally. (Kopp, R, 2015)  Suggest
In order for USA and Japan to resolve the cultural issue on decision making
Japanese firms will need to create their own method to speed up the decision
making whilst keeping their important fundamentals of decision making as this
will allow the country to work more comfortably with the USA. Furthermore, I would suggest that the USA slow down their decision making as it will
allow them to garner more information and to be decisive and make much more
accurate decisions.




There are a few different viewpoints on Hofstede’s theory of
cultural dimension which has resulted in many criticisms and limitations of
this theory as many arguments run against Hofstede’s work, the discussion which
follows endeavours to capture some of the more pertinent issues. (Jones, M,
2007) Explains several key criticisms and
limitations of Hofstede’s theory of
cultural dimension. Primarily researchers have claimed that a major criticism
of the theory Is that it is too old for any modern value which is due to
today’s rapidly changing global environments, internationalisation and
convergence. However, this was argued by Hofstede as he stated that the cross-cultural outcomes were based on centuries
of indoctrination and recent replications have supported the fact that
technology will not change overnight (Hofstede 1998, 481). A key limitation of
Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory is that it lacks dimensions, 6 dimensions are far too little to give sufficient
information about cultural differences, Hofstede agrees as he believes
additional dimensions should continue to be added to his original work (Hofstede
1998, 481). which will lead to an increase in information about cultural
differences making it more accurate for another
theorist to use.





As defined by (Blessing F,
2014) Hofstede’s theory of cultural dimensions describes the effect of a
society’s culture on the value of its members, and how these values relate to
behaviour, using a structure derived from factor analysis. (Hofstede, G, 2011) explains
that the theory is categorised into 6
dimensions. The first dimension is known as Power distance which is related to
the different solutions to the basic problem of human inequality. The second is
Uncertainty avoidance this is related to the level of stress in a society in
the face of an unknown future. The third is Individualism vs Collectivism which
is the degree to which people in a society are integrated into groups. The
fourth dimension is Masculinity versus Femininity, Masculinity implies a society’s preference for assertiveness,
heroism, achievement and material reward for attaining success. On the
contrary, femininity represents a preference for modesty, cooperation, quality
of life and caring for the weak (Anastasia, 2015). The Fifth Dimension is Long
term vs short term orientation, this is related to the choice of focus for
people’s efforts: the future or the present and past. Finally, the sixth
Dimension is indulgence vs restraint, simply this revolves around the degree to
which societies can exercise control over their impulses and desires.


In this essay, I will be
using Hofstede’s “Cultural dimensions” theory to compare the difference in
culture from USA and Japan moreover I
will also be discussing the potential problems that may arise for people from
these two countries doing business with one another. This will involve cultural
issues such as speed vs consistency, Heterogeneous
vs. Homogeneous cultures, individualism vs collectivism ideals between both
countries. Lastly, I will summarise my essay by giving recommendations
on how both countries can solve these issues.







an appropriate model of cultural values, contrast two cultures then discuss
what potential problems might arise for people from these two cultures doing
business with one another.

























Box B question 1…………………………………………………………………………..3

Box A compulsory question…………………………………………………..2



Contents page






 Formative Assessment


Module Title:
Cross-Cultural Management







Student ID: GRA14375978


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