Vehicles driven by electric motors were introduced in1830. Almost after half of a century, in 1870 Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)running on petrol was invented. In 1900, electric vehicles sold more than allother forms of vehicles. Electric cars had numerous conveniences over theircontestants in the early 1900s. The starting and operating system were facileand those vehicles emit zero smell and noise as petrol and diesel vehicles.
Thedemand of electric vehicles fall in 1920 and the ICE came to subjugate thetransportation mart. Contrariwise, detection of Texas crude oil curtailed themonetary value of gasoline and petrol powered vehicles became more purchasablefor users. Fossil fuels(Oil and natural gases) are extracted by drilling geological layers and cannotbe produced by human by their own.
The scarcity of these resources is aimminent future. The demand for fossil fuel is growing rapidly day by day.Since 1965, the demand for energy has surged, growing at an average annual rateof 4.
8% (Qasem, 2010). As the demand is growing because of fossil fuel dependedeconomy and depletion of these resources someday the world will run out offossil fuel. An energy deficiency is waiting for the whole world and that willled human towards a miserable life. Variousstudies show that the total remaining recoverable oil resources would last 190years, natural gas 230 years, and coal, a whopping 2900 years.
Thesenumbers apply if current rates of production hold for centuries to come, whichmay not be the case (Siddharth, 2015). Whereas according to World EnergyOutlook 2014, the proven reserve of coal could be consumed in around 145 years,gas resources in around 60 years and oil resources in around 50 years ifcurrent rate of production is ongoing.Transportation sector consume a large proportion of energy.
As going with the current trends this sector is much dependent on petroleum based product and dependency on natural gas is increasing, only a few percentages depends on renewable energy source including railroad cars powered by electricity. A trend that emerged since the 1950s concerns the growing share of transportation in the world’s total oil consumption; transportation accounts for approximately 25% of world energy demand and for about 61.5% of all the oil used each year (Rodrigue and Comtois, 2017). The demand of fossil fuel in transportation sector is increasing day by day as the population is growing up and its demand for transport. Simultaneously the production of fossil fuel energy is not enhancing.Burning fossil fuel is also a source of pollution. This process emits a lot of pollutant directly in the air and water which is a threat for the environment. Even today’s relatively clean car will generate about 1 ton of pollution over its lifetime.
(POPA subcommittee on Energy, 1996). Transport sector emit pollutant like carbon di-oxide, carbon monoxide, nitro oxide, volatile organic compounds including hydrocarbons which cause direct damage to the atmosphere. Sometime burned fuel and synthetic lubricating oil leaked on the road what washed away by rain water and contaminate ground water source when they met.Transportation demand is rising rapidly in Dhaka city as it has a large population to serve. With a population density of 44,500 people per square kilometer, Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is the most crowded city on the planet by quite a distance (World Economic Forum,2017). So the demand for transportation of the city can easily be assumed. Though there are plenty of non-motorized transport such as Rickshaw, van, bicycle etc.
, to meet up this large demand for transportation Dhaka city needs to burn a lot of fuel and generate a large number of pollutant everyday what directly affect the country’s economy and ambient air quality of the city. As the global temperature is rising because of pollution, Bangladesh is among one of them who’s coastal area will submerged in sea water because global warming is accountable for sea level rising. With a huge population loosing land area will be a burden. Before asking others Bangladesh should set a paradigm to save the world as well as all developed and developing countries.
To overcome the problem of future energy scarcity thewhole world should move on towards renewable energy sources and technology andinfrastructures that support renewable energy. Hybrid vehicle is one of themost significant inventions of modern science as a sustainable mode oftransportation. It is powered by two or more individual types of power such asinternal combustion engine and electric drive what makes it more fuel efficientand abate pollutant emissions.
Introducing hybrid vehicle in developing cities likeDhaka is an expedient demand. But introducing such type of mode has diverschallenge. This research is conducted to identify those challenges and possibledefinite measures to overcome those challenges.