What comes up to your mind when you hear the
word Avant-Garde? Avant-garde is basically a French term, meaning in English
modern art which started in the beginning of 1850s. In the beginning of the
nineteenth century, it seemed with reference to art in France and was
attributed to the significant theorist Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the
founders of socialism. At the very end of the modern period, several types of
Avant-garde art appeared such as contemporary art movements. In another way,
being avant-garde needs to explore new artistic methods, or try-out new
approaches to have the ability to produce better art. In addition, Avant-garde
has a lot of other movements such as cubism, futurism, Neo-Plasticism or
surrealism which have had strong programs, but will further be described in
detail about the differences and similarities of Neo-Plasticism and Futurism.
Even though both movements came in the same century; however, Futurism came
before Neo-Plasticism and was not founded from the same origin.

     Futurism
and Neo-Plasticism period have been selected to exhibit how two art movements
can have comparisons yet still hold true to their own values, thoughts, and
principles to produce a decisive style. Even though they are both Avant-Garde
movements, they have more differences than the similarities, starting with the
definition of each movement first. Which artist limits their selves by two or
three colours? Yes, Neoplasticism is a term approved by the Dutch inventor of
abstract art developed by Piet Mondrian. In addition to the art movement Futurism
which was one of the avant-garde movements founded in Milan in 1909 by the poet
Filippo Tommaso Marinetti as also it was an artistic and social movement that
highlighted speed, technology, youth and violence, and objects such as cars,
airplane, and the industrial city. World War 1 had been dominant of both Futurisms’
imaginary since Marinetti had launched the movement at that time and
Neoplasticism emerged largely in response to the fears of it, but more on
Futurism from the time when it appeared on the first page of Le Figaro in
Paris. Both art movements had been influenced by other movements such as Pop
Art, Cubism and Art Deco. Not only Boccioni’s encounter with Cubist painting
had an important influence, but also Neo-Plasticism was one of the related art
movements to cubism as they came after each other.  Alessandro Bruschetti was an
Italian Futurist artist who was inspired by the World War and is shown in his
artwork. It is obvious how Alessandro used portraits of solders and airplanes
with other machinery equipment to send a message that the World War had a big
impact on many artists throughout the years and this period of time. Why did I
choose this artwork specifically? Fascist Synthesis stands out for the perfect
meaning of the art movement Futurism and it describes how Cubism had influenced
it.

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Furthermore,
Futurism has some matches relating to
Neo-Plasticism such as similar colours, the inspiration of Cubism and the World
War 1 as long as it was in the same century. Cubism had a huge influence on
both movements and it is shown in architecture, artwork, product and interiors.

     Oppositely, there
are a lot of differences between both movements when it comes to the material,
style, texture, and the time each one was ended in. Architect Antonio
Sant’Elia became one the futurist architect by making drawings of modern
cities and futuristic buildings. Materials which are used in architecture are
glass, cardboard, reinforced concrete, as well as, wood, brick, and stone
substitutes, different lightness and flexibility. Moving to the main
painters of Neoplasticism are Theo van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian which applied
their style to a host of media in the fine and applied arts and beyond for their
own type of abstract painting which used geometric forms in black, white, grey,
and primary colours. There are four main elements in Neoplasticism architecture
which are white elements to shape the house and its structure, grey elements to
show the hidden and exposed areas, linear elements and functional elements.  It is obvious how it was against the
decorative excesses of Art Deco. Futurism’s main subject is modern urban scenes
which express energy, so it was something at that time. Later on, The Futurists
discovered every medium of art, including painting, sculpture, poetry, theatre,
music, architecture and even gastronomy. “We Futurists are trying with
the power of intuition, to place ourselves at the very centre of things, in
such a way that our ego forms with their own uniqueness a single complex. We
give plastic planes a plastic expansion in space, obtaining this feeling of
something in perpetual motion which is peculiar to everything living”-( Carlo Carra). “What do I want to express with my work? Nothing
else than that every artist seeks: to achieve harmony through the balance of
the relationship between lines, colours and planes.    But only in
clearest and strongest way”- (Piet Mondrian). The
difference between the two quotes explains the way of thinking and how the
final work is planned to be. The work of Futurism expresses more things and is
more complicated compared to how simple Neoplasticism is which has one goal, to
make art simple and basic as possible and that was the only reason. Simplification was needed in the art world to be
returned, and especially after cynicism of the Dada, the damage and confusion
of World War 1. It is said that Futurism ended in 1915-16 but
still, artists nowadays get influenced by how art, violence, and machines are
connected together to form an artwork because they represented the
technological triumph of man over nature. However,
Futurists made artwork which was inspiring until Marinetti’s death in 1944,
later art movements such as Art Deco, Vorticism, Constructivism, Surrealism,
Dadaism and much later Neo-Futurism were severely influenced by the work of the
Futurists. Are Marinetti’s thoughts still existent? Yes in the Japanese culture
and their mangas and anime, but with new development such as speed was chosen
in order to create new forms of theatre in 1988 and after that Futurism started
to be destroyed ever since the death of its leader Marinetti. Futurism
did not directly recognize its unique style and worked in borrowing
elements from various technical characteristics of Post-Impressionism,
which include Symbolism and Divisionism
and more into Divisionism. It was complicated as it divided light and colours
into painted dots and stripes, and cracking the canvas plane into sections, at
the beginning was taken as an example from Severini and other artists. Artists wanted to filter art to be almost
scientific precision and perfection in the period of Neoplasticism. In
addition, arrangement and balance made a great part
of artist’s artwork, and this leads to more dominant in the next few decades of
modern design and modern architecture. It was different from one artist to the
other for example Theo van Doesburg used in his work diagonals and the
colour green which was not common with Piet Mondrian as he was the leading
painter of the group; nevertheless: other artists in the group used a
combination between Theo van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian’s work. This art
movement, in the beginning, was named as De
Stijl and then Piet realized that it makes more sense as Neo comes from New and
Plasticism refers to form making the word Neo-Plasticism. Despite the fact that
Piet Mondrian was a fan of Kandinsky’s writing, he disagreed about the variety
of elements an abstract painter should use. Neoplasticism had influenced the
Bauhaus artists and other later art movements such as Constructivism and
artists who were associated with Minimalism.

 

 

One of Theo van Doesburg work
which was different from Piet Mondrian’s work as he uses different geometric
shapes and as said before developing the work and using different colours such
as green. Each artist must have their own special artwork, but if they are both
the leaders of that movement they cannot disagree on one of the ideas.

Rectangular and colour blocks are
applied in the design of the Schröder House in 1924 and it was described as an
icon building of the Neoplasticism architecture in which Rietveld achieves
the perfect combination of the movement concepts and considers the
interior elements and the architectural design proving the principles. There
was a lot of disagreement about the diagonals Van Doesburg created, so he and Mondrian
split and everyone moved to deferent places.

 

 

One the Futuristic building made by Antoni Gaudi that describes Barcelona and Spain, and
perfectly explains the movement Futurism since it looks like a spaceship and
shows how architects turned it into Modern architecture.

 

 

 

 

Can you recognise in which art movement this building got
influenced? This architecture building looks modern and is actually a
futuristic and identifies exactly the term futurism. By using pencil to draw
the outline and then shading with black fine line made it more visible and
similar to the original picture. It is complicated and not easy to tell where
exactly its entrance is and whether it’s a real spaceship or a normal building.
It shows that many futurists got inspired by the World War and it had big
effect on architects, as most of the buildings nowadays are modern and
futuristic such as, the bullring, the tall buildings in New York and other
buildings. On the other hand, Neoplasticism is simple and most of the buildings
are not tall ones and just two or three floors or else it will just be a block
of buildings with some primary colours.  

Showing the difference between Neoplasticism artwork and
architecture how it is made. In both drawings primary colours are used, and the
rectangular shape of Piet Mondrian.

   

 

One of Zaha Hadid designs which is a modern design and
influenced by futuristic buildings which impresses many people.

     In a nutshell, some people do not see
Neoplasticism as a real art as Futurism as I have always been inspired by
Futuristic architecture, interiors and artworks. It express a big message to
the world how World War 1 made a big influence on many architects such as the
famous architect Zaha Hadid and other famous architects and artists. Definitely
both artists compared to architectural way of making it, they are no way to be
compared even though they have things in common like different art movements,
same century, some of the colours in artworks and being an Avant-Garde. It is
said that Futurism had been extinct since Marinetti’s death, but it shows that
futuristic buildings is being developed into Modern Art; however: it is not
built as cars, airplanes or other mechanical machines.  In Neoplasticism, decoration in interiors,
exteriors or even artwork was not something in the option of architects and
artists’ option. Both art movements was not originated from the same place, had
different years when they got known.  

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