When the heart beats it squeezes bloodthrough the arteries, the left ventricle ejects blood into the aorta, from thisthe aortic pressure will rise. The highest aortic pressure after ejection ofblood is called the systolic pressure. Followingthis the left ventricle will relax and begin refilling, thisallows the pressure in the aorta to then fall. Diastolic pressure isthe lowest pressure in the aorta and occurs just before the ventricle ejectsblood into the aorta. The normal resting bloodpressure in an adult is roughly around 120 mmHg systolic, and 80 mmHgdiastolic; 120/80 mmHg (L,Williams, 2018). There are many different factors thatcan influence blood pressure such as cardiac output, total peripheral resistance and arterialstiffness, activity, and relativehealth/disease state.

As for short term blood pressure, it is regulated by baroreceptors which send stimuli through the brain toimpact nervous and endocrine systems.2. Sphygmomanometer:Systolic SD – 2.7Diastolic SD – 1.24Electric BPmeter:Systolic SD – 3.

74Diastolic SD – 1.24It was important to calculate The Standard Deviation for each set of thedata points. By doing this it allows for a more concise result of comparison ofan average.A sphygmomanometer like the electronic bp meter can be used without anyexpertise. Unlike the electronic bp meter the sphygmomanometer is measured byhand. They are both used by professionals around the world and although manystudies have been done on which equipment is more accurate it is hard to concludeas there are many factors that can affect the results. As you can see from myresults after calculating the standard deviation for both the sphygmomanometerand the electronic bp meter you can see the standard deviation of diastolicblood pressure is the same and slightly higher on the systolic blood pressuremeasured by the electronic bp meter.

3.The blood pressure tendedto decline in the standing positioncompared with the sitting andsupine. By looking at the results collected I canconclude that systolic and diastolic blood pressure wasat the highest in supine positioncompared to the other positions. This may be due to the head being approximately the same level as ourheart. Nevertheless, when standing, the human head is significantly higher thanthe heart. Moreover, the heart will then have to pump much harder to transportblood to the brain, causing the blood pressure to rise. Blood pressure is usuallyacquired while an individual is sitting with the arm resting on a surface. So, whenblood pressure is taken while laying down might be a slightly lower, sincethere is less gravity.

4. Your blood pressure rises because the heart is beating faster during exercisein order to pump blood out and supply oxygen to the muscles. Systolic bloodpressure will increase during exercise, but diastolic blood pressure will onlyincrease slightly if an individual is exercising at their maximum heart rate. Inturn to meet the amplified blood demand, the heart has to pump faster andharder, asserting a greater volume of blood into the set space of the bloodvessels. Because arteries cannot expand greatly to accommodate this extrablood, the blood pressure will in turn rise.5.Higher BMI values were associatedwith higher MAP values.  Because BMI relateswith weight, it will also therefore associate with heart rate during exercise.

The more difficulty that the heart will have pumping blood in the middle ofstrenuous activity means that it will have to beat quicker in people with a highBMI to meet the needs of the body. Overweight people will also have a lessresponsive heart. The recovery heart rate, or the rate at which your heartbeats after vigorous activity, should fall faster if you are healthy. If youare not healthy, then your heart rate will take longer to fall.   6.By looking at the results you can see at least a slight increase in MAP in themajority of the group this is because caffeine cancause a short, but vivid increase in your blood pressure,even if you do not have high blood pressure.Individuals who regularly drinksthat contain caffeine have a higher blood pressure than do those who drink noneand can also develop a tolerance to caffeine. Consequently, caffeine doesn’thave a long-term effect on their blood pressure.

Lung capacity practical7. External respiration transpires in thelungs when oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses into thealveolar air. Internal respiration occursin the metabolizing tissues, where oxygen diffuses out of the blood and carbondioxide diffuses out of the cells. Gas exchange in the lungs is stated to as externalrespiration when one side of the respiratory membrane the alveolar air) is essentiallyoutside of the body. As the blood streams through the pulmonary capillaries,oxygen disperses into the blood and carbon dioxide disperses into the alveolargas. Each gas disperses down its own partial pressure gradient, from a high tolow partial pressure.

The partial pressure of oxygen is 100 mmHg in alveolarair compared to only 40 mmHg in the blood entering the lungs. The partialpressure of carbon dioxide is 40 mmHg in the alveolar air and 45 mmHg in theblood entering the lungs. The partial pressure gradient of each gasequilibrates as blood flows through the pulmonary capillaries. Consequently,the partial pressure of oxygen is 100 mmHg and the partial pressure of carbondioxide is 40 mmHg in the blood leaving the lungs.

This oxygen-rich blood willthen be transported to the tissues, where oxygen is needed to make ATP as a sourceof energy. Compared with external respiration, the gases move in oppositedirections. Oxygen disperses out of the blood into the tissues, and carbondioxide disperses out of the tissues into the blood. During forced breathing, the accessorymuscles aid with inhalation. Exhalation comprises contraction of the internalintercostal muscles. The abdominal muscles are involved during the greatestlevels of forced breathing. When the abdominal muscles Contract the musclescompress the abdomen, this in turn pushes the chest against the diaphragm addingfurther reduction to the volume of the thoracic cavity.

During quite breathingInhalation the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, leadingexhalation to be a passive process. (Williams & Wilkins, 2003.)8. The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) test calculates the rate that a person canexhale. The PEFR test is also referred to as peak flow. These patterns can potentially prevent an individual’ssymptoms from deteriorating for example a person with asthma.

The PEFR test canalso determine when you need to alter your medication. Or it can determine whetherenvironmental factors are distressing an individual’s breathing. Spirometry measures the mechanical function of lungs,chest wall and respiratory muscles by measuring the total volume of air exhaledfrom total lung capacity to residual volume. 9. The results show that the highestmeasurement of pulmonary functions was found when the student had performedspirometry while standing. There was a significantly higher value of PEFRobtained while sitting vs. those measured while the subject was standing. Inour practical session spirometry values were significantly lower in supineposition as compare to sitting position and magnitude of decrease in supineposition had also found significant decrease in spirometry values in supineposition as compare to sitting position.

This maybe due to an increase in the diameter of the main airway in the standingposition. When a person is upright the vertical gravitation gradient is at themaximum, the anterior ? posterior diameter of the chest wall is greater, andthe compression of lung and heart is minimized.Fig 2.Series 1 is the height of subjects and series 2 is the FVC of the subjects.Several factors can influence the FVC value, the most significantbeing height. Taller people have bigger thoracic cavities and therefore largerFVC values. The average adult male has a greater FVC than the average adultfemale. Potential disorders that limit the expansion of the chest will reduceinflation of the lungs and therefore reduce the FVC.

These include obesity,kyphosis, scoliosis, rib fracture, compression of the spine, and pleuraldisease. Diaphragm weakness can also reduce a person’s ability to take a deepbreath. By looking at the collected data above you can see a slight increase inthe taller subjects but not significantly this may be due to many factors thatwere not taken into account not only the few I listed above but also morecommon factors such as smoking.11. Minute ventilation before exercise 8 litres per minute and minuteventilation after moderate exercise 13 litres per minute. When a person exercises moreoxygen is used, this is because the body needs to supply more oxygen to the functioningmuscles. As the tidal volume and breathing rate rise the minute ventilation will also rise as more oxygen is needed for thebody to function correctly.12.

From the group results I was able to determine that the students who performedmore moderate exercise showed the greatest change in oxygen saturation levelfrom resting level. The majority of students who completed light exercise tooaround 30 seconds to return to resting oxygen saturation levels, whereasstudents who completed more moderate exercise took around 1 minute.Normal oxygen levels of 95 to 100 percent allowthe appropriate pressure within the body to allow the oxygen to be absorbedinto the muscles. Once exercise begins, the rate and depth of respiration escalatesto help meet the increase in oxygen demands. A normal response which referenceto oxygen saturation is a possible drop of only 2/3%.

Preferably, that levelwill stay above 92% during exercise to keep the appropriate pressure of oxygenin t

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