When the heart beats it squeezes blood
through the arteries, the left ventricle ejects blood into the aorta, from this
the aortic pressure will rise. The highest aortic pressure after ejection of
blood is called the systolic pressure. Following
this the left ventricle will relax and begin refilling, this
allows the pressure in the aorta to then fall. Diastolic pressure is
the lowest pressure in the aorta and occurs just before the ventricle ejects
blood into the aorta. The normal resting blood
pressure in an adult is roughly around 120 mmHg systolic, and 80 mmHg
diastolic; 120/80 mmHg (L,Williams, 2018). There are many different factors that
can influence blood pressure such as cardiac output, total peripheral resistance and arterial
stiffness, activity, and relative
health/disease state. As for short term blood pressure, it is regulated by baroreceptors which send stimuli through the brain to
impact nervous and endocrine systems.

Systolic SD – 2.7
Diastolic SD – 1.24

Electric BP
Systolic SD – 3.74
Diastolic SD – 1.24

It was important to calculate The Standard Deviation for each set of the
data points. By doing this it allows for a more concise result of comparison of
an average.
A sphygmomanometer like the electronic bp meter can be used without any
expertise. Unlike the electronic bp meter the sphygmomanometer is measured by
hand. They are both used by professionals around the world and although many
studies have been done on which equipment is more accurate it is hard to conclude
as there are many factors that can affect the results. As you can see from my
results after calculating the standard deviation for both the sphygmomanometer
and the electronic bp meter you can see the standard deviation of diastolic
blood pressure is the same and slightly higher on the systolic blood pressure
measured by the electronic bp meter.

The blood pressure tended
to decline in the standing position
compared with the sitting and
supine. By looking at the results collected I can
conclude that systolic and diastolic blood pressure was
at the highest in supine position
compared to the other positions. This may be due to the head being approximately the same level as our
heart. Nevertheless, when standing, the human head is significantly higher than
the heart. Moreover, the heart will then have to pump much harder to transport
blood to the brain, causing the blood pressure to rise. Blood pressure is usually
acquired while an individual is sitting with the arm resting on a surface. So, when
blood pressure is taken while laying down might be a slightly lower, since
there is less gravity.

Your blood pressure rises because the heart is beating faster during exercise
in order to pump blood out and supply oxygen to the muscles. Systolic blood
pressure will increase during exercise, but diastolic blood pressure will only
increase slightly if an individual is exercising at their maximum heart rate. In
turn to meet the amplified blood demand, the heart has to pump faster and
harder, asserting a greater volume of blood into the set space of the blood
vessels. Because arteries cannot expand greatly to accommodate this extra
blood, the blood pressure will in turn rise.


Higher BMI values were associated
with higher MAP values.  Because BMI relates
with weight, it will also therefore associate with heart rate during exercise.
The more difficulty that the heart will have pumping blood in the middle of
strenuous activity means that it will have to beat quicker in people with a high
BMI to meet the needs of the body. Overweight people will also have a less
responsive heart. The recovery heart rate, or the rate at which your heart
beats after vigorous activity, should fall faster if you are healthy. If you
are not healthy, then your heart rate will take longer to fall.



By looking at the results you can see at least a slight increase in MAP in the
majority of the group this is because caffeine can
cause a short, but vivid increase in your blood pressure,
even if you do not have high blood pressure.
Individuals who regularly drinks
that contain caffeine have a higher blood pressure than do those who drink none
and can also develop a tolerance to caffeine. Consequently, caffeine doesn’t
have a long-term effect on their blood pressure.

Lung capacity practical

External respiration transpires in the
lungs when oxygen diffuses into the blood and carbon dioxide diffuses into the
alveolar air. Internal respiration occurs
in the metabolizing tissues, where oxygen diffuses out of the blood and carbon
dioxide diffuses out of the cells. Gas exchange in the lungs is stated to as external
respiration when one side of the respiratory membrane the alveolar air) is essentially
outside of the body. As the blood streams through the pulmonary capillaries,
oxygen disperses into the blood and carbon dioxide disperses into the alveolar
gas. Each gas disperses down its own partial pressure gradient, from a high to
low partial pressure. The partial pressure of oxygen is 100 mmHg in alveolar
air compared to only 40 mmHg in the blood entering the lungs. The partial
pressure of carbon dioxide is 40 mmHg in the alveolar air and 45 mmHg in the
blood entering the lungs. The partial pressure gradient of each gas
equilibrates as blood flows through the pulmonary capillaries. Consequently,
the partial pressure of oxygen is 100 mmHg and the partial pressure of carbon
dioxide is 40 mmHg in the blood leaving the lungs. This oxygen-rich blood will
then be transported to the tissues, where oxygen is needed to make ATP as a source
of energy.


Compared with external respiration, the gases move in opposite
directions. Oxygen disperses out of the blood into the tissues, and carbon
dioxide disperses out of the tissues into the blood. During forced breathing, the accessory
muscles aid with inhalation. Exhalation comprises contraction of the internal
intercostal muscles. The abdominal muscles are involved during the greatest
levels of forced breathing. When the abdominal muscles Contract the muscles
compress the abdomen, this in turn pushes the chest against the diaphragm adding
further reduction to the volume of the thoracic cavity. During quite breathing
Inhalation the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract, leading
exhalation to be a passive process. (Williams & Wilkins, 2003.)

The peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) test calculates the rate that a person can
exhale. The PEFR test is also referred to as peak flow.

These patterns can potentially prevent an individual’s
symptoms from deteriorating for example a person with asthma. The PEFR test can
also determine when you need to alter your medication. Or it can determine whether
environmental factors are distressing an individual’s breathing. Spirometry measures the mechanical function of lungs,
chest wall and respiratory muscles by measuring the total volume of air exhaled
from total lung capacity to residual volume.

 The results show that the highest
measurement of pulmonary functions was found when the student had performed
spirometry while standing. 

There was a significantly higher value of PEFR
obtained while sitting vs. those measured while the subject was standing. In
our practical session spirometry values were significantly lower in supine
position as compare to sitting position and magnitude of decrease in supine
position had also found significant decrease in spirometry values in supine
position as compare to sitting position. This may
be due to an increase in the diameter of the main airway in the standing
position. When a person is upright the vertical gravitation gradient is at the
maximum, the anterior ? posterior diameter of the chest wall is greater, and
the compression of lung and heart is minimized.

Fig 2.
Series 1 is the height of subjects and series 2 is the FVC of the subjects.

Several factors can influence the FVC value, the most significant
being height. Taller people have bigger thoracic cavities and therefore larger
FVC values. The average adult male has a greater FVC than the average adult
female. Potential disorders that limit the expansion of the chest will reduce
inflation of the lungs and therefore reduce the FVC. These include obesity,
kyphosis, scoliosis, rib fracture, compression of the spine, and pleural
disease. Diaphragm weakness can also reduce a person’s ability to take a deep
breath. By looking at the collected data above you can see a slight increase in
the taller subjects but not significantly this may be due to many factors that
were not taken into account not only the few I listed above but also more
common factors such as smoking.

Minute ventilation before exercise 8 litres per minute and minute
ventilation after moderate exercise 13 litres per minute.
When a person exercises more
oxygen is used, this is because the body needs to supply more oxygen to the functioning
muscles. As the tidal volume and breathing rate rise the minute ventilation will also rise as more oxygen is needed for the
body to function correctly.

From the group results I was able to determine that the students who performed
more moderate exercise showed the greatest change in oxygen saturation level
from resting level. The majority of students who completed light exercise too
around 30 seconds to return to resting oxygen saturation levels, whereas
students who completed more moderate exercise took around 1 minute.
Normal oxygen levels of 95 to 100 percent allow
the appropriate pressure within the body to allow the oxygen to be absorbed
into the muscles. Once exercise begins, the rate and depth of respiration escalates
to help meet the increase in oxygen demands. A normal response which reference
to oxygen saturation is a possible drop of only 2/3%. Preferably, that level
will stay above 92% during exercise to keep the appropriate pressure of oxygen
in t


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