Will DaughtridgeHonors English IVSchmitz 3rd1/30/2018Ernest HemingwayEarly Life:Ernest Hemingway was born on July 21, 1899 in Oak Park, Illinois, an upper class town on the outskirts of Chicago. Both of Hemingway’s parents were well respected within the neighborhood-his dad being a doctor, and his mom, a musician. He spent many days hunting and fishing around the forested land of Walloon Lake: both hunting and fishing would become lifelong hobbies, steering Hemingway on adventurous experiences that would shape many of his works.
His writing for his high school newspaper eventually led to his tenure with the Kansas City Star newspaper, which shaped his famous style of short sentences and paragraphs. World War I:Hemingway attempted to enlist in the military, but due to poor eyesight, he was turned away. After his failed attempt in joining the armed forces, Hemingway signed up to be an ambulance driver for the Red Cross. Shortly after, he made his way to where he stationed-Milan, Italy. There, Hemingway delivered treats to soldiers at the front lines, such as cigarettes, but became injured after he was hit by machine gun fire and shell fragments.
Hemingway was able to muster up enough strength to help his fellow soldiers, and take them back to safety. Later in life, he was recognized by the Italian government for his valor and duty with a silver medal. His book Death in the Afternoon recounts his near-death experience in Milan: his work is wholistically derivative of personal encounters and experiences. Paris:Succeeding his service in Milan, Hemingway returned to the States and camped, hunted, and fished with his friends in the upper-land of the Michigan peninsula. His friend then offered him a job with the Toronto Star Weekly, and Hemingway accepted, as he had nothing else to do. Succeeding working in Toronto, Hemingway moved back to Chicago, near his childhood town of Oak Park.
The young author then met his soon to be wife, Hadley Richardson, and the two moved to Paris together on the recommendation by a new acquaintance, Sherwood Anderson, who introduced Hemingway to Gertrude Stein via letter. In Paris, Stein, a leader of the modernist movement, became Hemingway’s mentor, introducing him to the creative minds of the Montparnasse Quarter-one being the famous Vincent Van Gogh. The relationship with Stein ended with a long-lasting quarrel, and ties soon deteriorated. Hemingway soon met the poet Ezra Pound on a random encounter at a local bookstore. Through their friendship, Hemingway also met the author James Joyce with whom he would occasionally drink.
His stay in Paris allowed for Hemingway to publish 88 works in the Toronto Star: his work included coverage of the Greco-Turkish war, as well as travel pieces. His wife, during her travel to meet Hemingway in Geneva, lost the luggage containing his works he had written while in Paris. Only two stories remained of the work he had written after Hadley had lost the suitcase full of manuscripts; they were published in an anthology shortly after the incident while Hemingway returned to the States. He and his family-his son was born during their return to the US-soon returned to Paris.
Hemingway helped edit The Transatlantic Review which contained works by Stein and Pound, and himself (a short story called “Indian Camp” which received much praise for its concise and non-superfluous style). F. Scott Fitzgerald, whom Hemingway had met a short time before, publish Great Gatsby that same year, and after reading it, Hemingway developed a yearning to write a Novel of his own. Visits to Spain:Over the next couple of years, Hemingway and his wife visited Spain for the San Fermin festival in Pamplona, where his interest in bullfighting was spawned.
The second trip to the festival was accompanied by Hemingway’s good friends. Soon after, on his birthday, Hemingway started to write what would become his most well known book, The Sun Also Rises. Hemingway, during a trip to Austria, was urged to join the publishing group by the name of Scribner’s by Pauline Pfeiffer, with whom he would have an affair.
After many proofs and revisions, Hemingway’s novel was published in October, 1926. It wasn’t long until Hadley’s and Hemingway’s marriage fell apart due to distance, and an affair with Pauline Pfeiffer during his writing of The Sun Also Rises. Hemingway and Pauline married in the year 1927, and subsequently moved to Key West in the next year.
Just before moving, Hemingway wrote his short story “Fifty Grand” which was published in Cosmopolitan and was highly accredited by critics. Key West: Hemingway’s second son was born in the year 1928 in the States; later that same year, as Hemingway was travelling to Florida, he received a message that his father had committed suicide due to finances. Hemingway, after returning to Key West, started to write his well received book A Farewell to Arms. He then, after his stint in Spain and his found interests in bullfighting, began writing his next work, Death in the Afternoon. Hemingway began to travel back and forth between the States, mainly Wyoming, where he could hunt and fish, and Key West. A car accident in 1930 broke his arm and left his writing hand severely injured for about a year. In the year 1931, Hemingway’s third son was born, who is named Gregory Hemingway. Later that year, Pauline’s uncle, who was rather wealthy, bought the family a house on Key West that was near the famous Sloppy Joe’s bar, where Hemingway would frequent.
The house has since become a spot of attraction in Key West, and is open for the public to tour and view where Hemingway did his writing on the second floor. While living in the Caribbean, Hemingway enjoyed fishing, and also took an expedition with his friends to the Dry Tortugas, a group of small islands near Key West and now a protected park. Africa: Pauline and Hemingway took a two and a half month safari in East Africa in the year 1933: Hemingway’s experiences there were what fueled his work Green Hills of Africa, “The Snows of Kilimanjaro,” and “The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber.” The Pilar: Hemingway bought his famous fishing boat, the Pilar, in 1934, and fished the Caribbean in it. The boat and his fishing trips would become an experience that would provide the story behind his novel The Old Man and the Sea.
Spain and Cuba: Hemingway traveled to Spain to report on the Spanish Civil War for the North American Newspaper Alliance in 1937. Hemingway was also staying in Spain with a woman he met earlier named Martha Gellhorn. There, in Madrid, was where Hemingway wrote his play The Fifth Column. Hemingway then travelled to Cuba on his Pilar from Key West to stay with Martha at Finca Vigia in 1939. Later that year, after a long separation from Pauline, Hemingway’s divorce finalized, and he soon after married Martha in 1940. Hemingway then bought a summer home in Ketchum, Idaho to vacation to when not in Cuba. He then was pushed by his new wife Martha to write For Whom the Bell Tolls, one of his most well known works–it was a huge hit, selling half a million copies. Hemingway then set his sails to London and Europe in the years 1944 and 1945.
He was there in order to report on World War II as a correspondent. While there, Hemingway met Mary Welsh, who, after frustration from Martha and an eventual divorce, he asked her to marry him. Hemingway also experienced the landing of the troops in Normandy, and witnessed the waves of many troops that fell subject to enemy fire. Hemingway also became a sort of commander to a small militia group in Paris, which would later get him in trouble by the Geneva Conference–apparently correspondents are not supposed to command militia groups. Additionally, he was there for the liberation of Paris in 1944, where he forgave Gertrude Stein for earlier disagreements. Hemingway then travelled to Luxembourg to cover the Battle of the Bulge, but was too sick to report. Hemingway subsequently won a bronze star after the war for his risk taking to properly report on the situation of the war. Hemingway, after the war, continued on living in Cuba.
During this stint on the island, he suffered from many injuries and health problems, such as blood pressure rises, broken bones, gashes, and depression that ensued after a series of deaths of his close friends such as Fitzgerald, Stein, Ford Maddox Ford, and Perkins. This period in Cuba was not accredited for much writing, but Hemingway had started a trilogy and wrote Garden of Eden while at his Finca Vigia. Then, after writing an ill-received story Across the River and Into the Trees, Hemingway responded with one of his most well received and notable books, The Old Man and the Sea, which won the Pulitzer prize. Hemingway and his wife Mary then visited Africa for a safari, and he was nearly killed in two airplane accidents while there.
Some newspapers prematurely printed his obituary in their papers as news came in of the crashes, but Hemingway survived. In 1954, the aging author received the Nobel Prize in literature, and as he was too injured to travel to Stockholm for the ceremony, Hemingway wrote a speech to be read in his place by the academy. Hemingway was consequently bedridden from his injuries cause by the plane crashes, and gave up drinking to aid with recovery. Once he was better, he made a trip to Paris, and upon discovering trunks he had left at the Ritz, Hemingway reclaimed his manuscripts he had written during his stint in Paris.
He then returned to Cuba to add more the Garden of Eden, and additionally wrote A Moveable Feast. Eventually the Finca Vigia began to be filled with tourists and guests, and Hemingway became tired of the attention, so he considered moving away from the villa. In 1960, he went back to the States to New York City to progress on his work-in-progress pieces, and soon visited Spain where he was photographed for the Life magazine work he did on bullfighting earlier that year. Then, he fell very ill and his health greatly worsened, and his depression sunk in even more, leaving him very lonely. Idaho:Hemingway, as his father did close to the end of his life, started to worry about his financial situation, as well as if the FBI was watching him in Idaho–this was not such an irrational fear as an undercover spy was sent to watch him in Cuba for his trawling the shores with his Pilar. Hemingway then was checked into the Mayo Clinic in Minnesota for his current condition: the ordeal surrounding his treatment was kept rather confidential, and was not prominent to the public eye.
Then, on July 2, 1961, Hemingway, in his home in Ketchum, Idaho, shot himself with his double barrel shotgun–a gun in which he was very familiar. Hemingway, one of the most famous authors of the 20th century, lived a well travelled and exciting life throughout the world, providing the public with a writing style characterized by short and telling sentences, which were derivative with his newspaper experience. His adventurous life reflected in his works, which were often written about subjects such as fishing, hunting, the wilderness, and even love. His works continue to be read globally, and continue to be recognized for their brilliance through simplistic writing.Annotated Bibliography “About Hemingway.” Ernest Hemingway Collection, https://www.ernesthemingwaycollection.
com/about-hemingway/ernest-hemingway-early-years. Accessed 8 Jan. 2018.This source gives information of Hemingway’s life as a whole, dividing defining sections of his life into different pages.
For example, the source gives options on Hemingway’s “early life” and his years spent in Italy, Paris, Key West, Africa, Spain, Cuba, and Idaho. Each time frame of his life and each different location has a different story that is reflected in Hemingway’s works. I plan to use this source to show the timeline of Hemingway’s life in places all over the globe, and how readers can see this timeline through Hemingway’s many works. “Ernest Hemingway – A Short Biography.” Ernest Hemingway Books, 15 Oct.
2010, www.hemingwaypreservationfoundation.org/ernest-hemingway-a-short-biography.html, Accessed Jan 8. 2018.This source focuses on the evolution of Ernest Hemingway as a writer. It begins by giving pertinent facts from his childhood, such as his writing and editing of his high school’s newspaper and yearbook, and how he went on to graduate from high school but still kept up with writing by working for the Kansas City Star newspaper. This source also focuses on Hemingway’s devastating love life, and how that forced him to evolve as a writer, reflecting through many of his works such as “A Very Short Story” in 1925 and “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” in 1936.
I plan to use this source to reach into the more personal backgrounds of Hemingway’s works, and to inform my reader about the many factors that went into his writing.Frenz, Horst. “Ernest Hemingway – Biographical.” Nobel Lectures, Literature 1901-1967, Elsevier Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1969, https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/1954/hemingway-bio.html.
Accessed 8 Jan. 2018.This source talks about Ernest Hemingway’s most self-defining moments and careers. The article covers a long span of time, but rather than focusing on what Hemingway’s life was like and what he did, it used the most important facts about his life and how they are reflected in his writings. For example, the article talks about A Farewell To Arms, Hemingway’s story about an American ambulance officer in the war, as it stems from Hemingway’s background in an ambulance army during World War One. I plan to use this article as a base for informing my reader on how Hemingway’s background helped shape many of his works. Meyers, Jeffrey.
Hemingway: A Biography. Macmillan, 1999This biography was the most comprehensive and complete biography that I could find on Hemingway, and therefore was my main source for information. It provided specific and vast information on the different stages and areas of his life, like the different places he lived, which were great influencers in his writing.
It will be helpful to use this to supplement information for my other sources, which, while good, are not as nearly as comprehensive and complete as this biography, because it is a book and the others are merely articles. It will be helpful to skim areas within the book to get an overview of that period in his life.